Chapter two: Literature Review 2.1 Online communication 2.1.
1 Definition Online communication is a visual and writtencommunication that entered in the world of Mass Media when inventors started toconceive computers in the middle of 20th century. Due to theevolution of Mass Media, Internet began popularised and offered some servicesto facilitate long distance communication to people, in 1990. According to Dr.Belfakir, University Schools of arts and Human Sciences, Online communication isa type of communication that consists of using Internet and services online tocommunicate with people, using communication online provides interaction to thetarget audience by using different channels. In Madagascar, the beginning of internet was at theend of 1998 with 2.2 per 100 people Internet users. The number of InternetUsers start to grow rapidly during the Great Recession in 2007 and 2008, sincethen, it continued raising with 35% of growth, according to Wordbankdatasource.
2.1.2 Objectives of online communication Internet is one of a medium used to communicate daily,it connects people around the World. Sandesh reported in a blog named:Blogtechnika that people use internet firstly to get information, they can usesearch engines like google and yahoo to learn news and facts. Secondly, it isfor Social Networking, people can talk with friend and family by using socialnetworking website like Facebook.
Also, internet entertain people like videos,movies, games. Not only does it market but It allows the users to createbusiness or do marketing, marketers can launch products on social media orbuild a website to promotes them. And essentially, Internet furnishes onlineeducation for students and learners. By the way, as from the source: the McGraw-HillCompanies, Online communication is used to create awareness, Internet usersbecomes aware of the facts that Internet is sharing to the them.
After that,the mass become interested and consumed it. There are also companies that useinternet to create image and strong reputation. It is crucial for a companynowadays having website because it helps to create a strong brand.
2.1.3 Online communication toolsMany devices are used to communicate online: laptop,mobile phone, tablet or computer.
Each of them contains tools to be utilized toexchange messages and information. The site ezTalks revealed some various toolslisted below: – Video Conferencing: this is usually utilized inbusiness for making conference and meetings, in fact it authorizes to talkimmediately and face to face via web camera, makes a collaboration of twocompanies easier without wasting time. Hence, meetings occur in various timezones and cost is effective and affordable.
– Online Messages for having text conversations, thistool is effective and immediate. People can have private chats, share videosand files and all others services that devices are able to do. – Whiteboards: this tool is recent and needs mouse tomake content, draw in an electronic whiteboard. It is especially necessary inlearning and for education.
– Email: electronic email allows to send and receivefiles from any destination. It can be used whether personally or professionally.2.1.4 Social Networking definitionBy definition Social Networking is “the creation and maintenance of personal andbusiness relationships especially online”, – Miriam Webster. Social Mediais also “a group of Internet-basedapplications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web2.0 and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content”.
SocialMedia is considered as a digital media throughout devices to share messages,news, information. Therefore, people needs the use of applications available onmobiles, because of that, social networking is almost cheap and easy to use.According to Daniel Nation (Lifewire.com), SocialNetworking influences a large number of people and become the most usedcomponents of the web. It consists of interacting with friends and groups,meeting new people, sharing opinion and point of view. There, everyone canexpress freely and share interests. In addition, internet users like socialnetworking because it helps them to get job, some of them make their ownbusiness by using social networking.
In Madagascar, Facebook is in the first place, andbecome the most used social media in the capital, reported by ThierryRatsizehena. Therefore, The Malagasy site Koolsaina.com informed about theexistence of the service Free Basics in order to connect freely to Facebook,the service proposed to the clients to free access some site like Google,Facebook, Messenger and Whatsapp. That is why social media users grow rapidlyin the capital.
2.2 Target Audiences In simply way, according to Cambridge Dictionary,Target Audience is the specific people that to which the messages, orinformation from a source are conducted. In social networking, it is morecomplicated as the users can see various documents from web, so knowing andunderstanding audience’s needs are important to keep them interested. An article from Forbes written by Jayson DeMersdefined some ways to decode the target audience. Firstly, it is fundamental toknow who are the audience with their ages and profiles. Secondly, their desirecan help to keep them attracted, understanding their problems can help to findthe solutions that they expect.
Then, we need to choose the types of mediachannels, to identify the most effective channel for the appropriate articles,it is good to know if they read blogs or use websites. After that, the articlesor the information must be beneficial for them, if the results are positives,it means that the audience are well defined.The youngsters in the capital, called “les jeunestananariviens” are mostly the target audience as we can see in the image below,from the source socialbakers, the age between 18-24 years occupied a large partthat explain more the age background of Facebook users. 25 – 34years oldfollows it afterwards. 2.3 Magic Bullet Theories Magic Bullet Theories is a model of communication, accordingto Dana Griffin in Chron.
com, that portrays how the mass react to media. Thetheory also declares that Media had an immediate, powerful and direct effect toMass. It can be called hypodermic needle model as well, it describes the roleof media that diffuse directly the message to its audience, therefore, the massact passively while receiving it. In fact, the mass cannot resist to everythingthat the media send, so people risks to believe all facts that they got andmedia become dangerous for them. In other meaning, the message is injected toparticular audience and been accepted unconsciously by them. Lasswell theory ofmagic bullet think that the receiver which is the mass is influenced badly, healso claimed that people are passive so they are manipulated easily.
This model of communication has been used since theSecond World War II in 1930 (UKEssays) in Germany and United States. Thistheory caused many changes to people, as the messages contains different ideas,this results diversity of culture, behavior, beliefs, values and attitudes. HaroldLasswell affirmed that during the World War, propagandist messages influencedmany people to change their mind. Hence, it became a technique for doingpropaganda during the World War. In 1940, the Magic Bullet Theory was disapproved byLazarsfeld, the research that he conducted during the election of Roosvelt in1940 stated that the public was not unperturbed by the campaign.Consequently,Lazarsfeld deduced that the campaign message did not influence the public,which meant that it was not powerful. Indeed, people cannot control media and are powerlessbecause, the way message are sent to the audience define human beings andvalues.
Media effects are differentiated by the education of people, religionand politics (reported by UKessays), by the way, some people are less sensitiveto the media effects and some are not due to the diversity of them.In the capital of Madagascar: Antananarivo, Facebookinfluences radically teenagers, this leads to changing of lifestyle (accordingto TPE Groupe 1 on the site Prezi). Malagasy people are attracted new culturesand start to forget their own culture.
2.4 Effects of using Facebook 2.4.1 Positive Effects:Facebook is one of social networking site which gainsmore and more popularity and become indispensable for young people in theirlife. There are many positive points from using it.
.A BBC report in 2013 states generally that people useSocial Networking to express themselves. They have liberty to share opinions,feelings, videos and photos. The users are effectively able to see whatevertheir friend and family’s activities, it is a good way to entertain peopleafter a stressful day. In the site TurboFuture,Nick McGillivray stated some advantages:At first, Facebook allows students to connect withteachers and make their collaboration easier. Thus, many students use socialmedia to find researches and get information to support their education. Also,learners utilize Facebook to discuss and debate topics for their assignments.One utility of Facebook is making election, politiciancan increase the votes of publics and favorizes his political party, he can dohis campaign online and share information of future events or activities.
In addition to that, Facebook and other socialnetworks increases awareness of the viewers because there, messages are quickand instant, information is diffused rapidly like breaking news. Basically, ithas the role to inform people on the latest news that happen around the worldand make people aware of changes.Facebook facilitates widely communication with friendsand family.
52% of teenagers confirm that they build friendships due to socialmedia, some of them make new friends and talk with people they do notfrequently.For professional use, Facebook offers manyopportunities like marketing and business, unemployed people have their chanceto get a job as recruiters can create thousands of jobs online. 2.4.2Negative Effects:However, Facebook can also impact negatively theusers.
Still reported by Nick McGillivray, there some threats caused byFacebook which can be danger for humans:In the first place, Facebook causes carelessness ofeducation. Students who waste their time in Facebook everyday, risk of having”grades dropped” at school, because it reduces concentration and theproductivity of students.Secondly, on social Media, privacy is insecure despitethe privacy policies of the site. Young people like to share life and personalinformation to be seen by the public. Therefore, teenagers think their posts likephotos, are out of danger and they do not grab attention to read about theprivacy policies unfortunately.We can also find different forms of crime while usingit, there are sites created specifically for propaganda. Copyright of theauthors may not be respected as well because users can copy and share photos orvideos from other sources. Apart from that, cybercriminal rate is higher assome other people are able to hack, and build viruses online.
In fact, bullyingand threatening messages are also common in Facebook, 49% of students affirmedto be victims of attacks that leads to depression or even suicide.Facebook can disconnect people from reality and makelose of real friends. People spend time online instead of making face-to-facecommunication. Once they become obsessed, they do not pay attention to familytime but prefer checking their devices at any time.
While, being disconnectedto the reality provokes loneliness, life disorders and depression.Moreover, all information spread on social network isnot necessarily true, Facebook contains many different fake news and rumors.For examples, people used to follow treatment of health problems online insteadof going to hospital, this is very dangerous for the patient. In addition, thevarious advertising available on the cite encourages people to spend money morethan usual.And above all, Facebook is a waste of time, ratherthan doing physical activities or working, it perturbates our daily life. 2.5 Uses and Gratifications Theory 2.5.
1 Definition and Assumptions of Uses andGratifications Theory: By definition, Uses and Gratifications theory is acommon approach to comprehend mass communication, the theory aims toconcentrate on audience and to regarding particularly “what people do withmedia” instead of “what media does to people” (Katz 1959). It satisfiespublic’s expectation by understanding why and how audience discover media. It presumesthat people are very active in responding and analyzing media, they are alsoaware of their choice to fulfill their needs and gratifications.The theory first appeared in 1940 while studying theangle of uses and gratifications theory in listening radio (Lazarsfeld, Paul F1940). Later, it was assigned to the professor Jay Blumler and the sociologistElihu Katz that imply the departure from Hypodermic needle model.
According to McQuail (2010), the research of thetheory analyzes the reason why people listen to radio programs, it rises whypeople use media and the benefits from it. Communication researches apply usesand gratifications theories to examine and interpret any gratifications peopleget from media. Technologies insertion have change the use of Media as audienceget mediated by using social networks (Li 2005), therefore, consumers of socialmedia have the benefit to seek information that they need. 2.5.2Uses and Gratifications approachAccording to the research done by Katz and Blumler,the audience are supposed to be active in the mass communication process. Mediaalso challenge with other sources of gratification to attract many audience.The media goals for the audience are categorized in 5 uses according to theresearch: inform and educate audience, identify with characters of situation,entertain consumers, ameliorate social communication, and relieve stress ofpeople.
Their needs encourage them to gather information for gratification(Katz and Blumler).- Cognitiveneeds: it refers to collecting information and increasing knowledge, throughdocumentaries, TV programs, or movies. In fact, they can get some skills from adifferent field, such us environment, politics, economics. Internet users alsohave search engines and browser to find any topic which would interest people.- Affectiveneeds: it concerns feelings and emotion of the mass. Media can bring differentsort of emotions depending on the message content such as happiness, sadness,excitement, fears. There are many entertainments that bring emotional feelingslike concert live, soap opera, or dramatic movies.
– Personalintegrative needs: it relates to personal values, morality and credibility. Itpromotes good reputation like when people use Facebook to increase and enhancetheir status for self-esteem need.- Socialintegrative needs: it develops interaction with family, friends, buildsrelationship with society.- Tensionrelease needs: it helps people to escape from reality when they need to calmdown their nerves.
2.5.3Applications of uses and gratifications:In Jordan Cruickshank’s opinion about uses andgratifications theory, the theory is perceived that Internet help people tosearch products and people, the browser allows audience to identify theirperspective roles. Over the last 10 years, internet development changesheavily, there are some websites that become more important for students to getresources for education such as, Youtube (tutorial and videos), Wikipedia, blogs,etc.…. 2.5.4CriticismA researcher Len Ang stated the theory is veryindividualistic, the psychology of individual is controlled by media when theperson is consuming it.
Thus, media use can be useless if the content does notconcern with the inquiry of gratification. Indeed, audience may get lessattention to media content.However, consumers are free to select how they usemedia in life and how it impacts them, said Jordan Cruickshank. This theory ispertinent in modern society to people who use digital media.Though, the theory of uses and gratifications assumedthat audience are passive, researchers found out that media offers muchselectivity so that, audience consumes it unconsciously and does not expect theeffects caused by ignorance. 2.6 ConclusionShanon Hampton published that there is a huge progressin use of online communication which can be advantageous or not for people whouse it.
Internet become effective for audience as it offers many tools that areuseful for various generation of people. Social media is included andclassified to be powerful to users. According to Vinita Jain (At MaharshiDayanand College), social media provides different sources that make peoplediscover news, shares information and content. It is the association of both technologyand sociology which leads to democratization and changes.
It is essential and important to know and learn thetarget audience to reach many audience, target audience can be categorized bydifferent variables: Geographic, demographic, psychographic and behavioral(Kotler et al. 2014). With all things that Internet gives to consumerseveryday, people become vulnerable and cannot resist on the effect caused bymedia consumption.
This brings to the application of magic bullet theory. The massmedia act likes a gun that shots or injects directly content to viewers asmagic bullet. It proves that the attack of the media is instant and very strongto people (cited on the websites of Univesity of Twente). This theory is one ofthe effects of social networking. Apart from that, social media like Facebook impactspositively and negatively on education, communication, politics (NickMcGillivray).
Well, taking the benefit and drawback of using Facebook dependson everyone’s choice.The applications of uses and gratifications theoryadjusts the reasons and effects of mass media on the audience. According toSarah Turney, the theory surfaced in 1970 and studied the opinion of the publicto traditional media, the reaction of the receiver was taken into account whilereceiving the message. The Uses and Gratifications theory focus more about themass rather than the media, it studies the behaviors of the media. Audienceconsumes media to get satisfaction of their needs and their decisions help themto find gratifications from media content.
The researchers Katz and Blumlerstudied the purpose of people needs on media, it comprehends cognitive needs,affective needs, personal integrative needs, social integrative needs as wellas tension integrative needs. The relevantcriticisms on uses and gratifications theory proved that the approach did notfurnish successful interpretation of media use and choice (McQuail 1994). Thecritics of the theory affirm the uncontrolled influences caused by mediacontent. The public cannot effectively manage what media diffuses to itsaudience, However, this theory can be more applicable to modern society as masscommunication nowadays let us to be free to express and control everything weget from media.