CHAPTER is rich in folk culture and religious traditional

CHAPTER 3: STUDY AREA  Present study has been conducted in sacred forestsof pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand, India. Pithoragarh is located 150 kmfrom the railway station of Tanakpur (which is the nearest railway station),Kathgodam and Lalkuan is another railway station which is 210 km from thedistrict. The geographical area of the district is 7,100 sq. km. Pithoragarhtown, which is located in Soar valley. There is Tibet plateau situated to thenorth of the district.

Nepal lies on the eastern borders. Kumauni is thelanguage which is widely spoken in various form as Gangoli (in the area ofGangolihat tehsil), Suryali (Pithoragrah tehsil), Bhotia, Hunia (Dharchula andMunsiayari) etc. Climate: Generally there are four seasons in an year viz. Winter,summer, Rainy and spring season. Uttarakhand comprises 13 districts out ofwhich Pithoragarh district (which comes under Kumaun region), is important areaof floral diversity, it comprises of five tehsils-Munsiayari, Dharchula,Didihat, Gangolihat and Pithoragarh. The district is also priviledged beingpathway for the great Kailash Mansarovar pilgrimage. On the other hand therivers like Kali, Sarju, Ramganga (eastern) and Gori flow here (Fig.1).

Best services for writing your paper according to Trustpilot

Premium Partner
From $18.00 per page
4,8 / 5
4,80
Writers Experience
4,80
Delivery
4,90
Support
4,70
Price
Recommended Service
From $13.90 per page
4,6 / 5
4,70
Writers Experience
4,70
Delivery
4,60
Support
4,60
Price
From $20.00 per page
4,5 / 5
4,80
Writers Experience
4,50
Delivery
4,40
Support
4,10
Price
* All Partners were chosen among 50+ writing services by our Customer Satisfaction Team

Thereare number of deities or ancestors i.e., Golu Dev, Gangnath, Harju, Shyamju,Malay Nath, Kot Gaadi, Banri Devi, Kasar Devi, Maddyo, Hokra Devi, Haat Kalika,Nakuleshwar mahadev, Lateshwar, etc. are local deities of the area.

3.1Selected sacred areas       The study wasconducted in twelve forests located in Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhandstate, India. Twelve sites represents sacred forests: (1) Haat Kalika sacredforest, Gangolihaat, (2) Haat Kalika non sacred forest, Gangolihaat (3)Chamunda Devi sacred forest, Gangolihaat(4) Chamunda Devi non sacred forest,Gangolihaat (5) Betal devta sacred forest, Kanalichina,(6) Betal devta nonsacred forest, Kanalichina, (7) Thal Kedar sacred forest, Badabe (8) Thal Kedarnon sacred forest, Badabe (9) Pasupatinath sacred forest, Chandak,(10)Pasupatinath non sacred forest, Chandak (11) Golu devta sacred forest, Ratwali(12) Golu devta non sacred forest, Ratwali3.

1.1Haat Kalika Sacred Forest: Haat Kali sacred forest is tributeto Maa Kalika, situated near Rawal goan in Gangolihat tehsil, of Pithoragarhdistrict at an altitude of 1695 m asl covered with forest of Cedrus deodara Roxb. ex D.Don..

It isrich in folk culture and religious traditional culture and established bySankaracharya. Local communities such as Rawal, Pant, Joshi, Pathak, Mehta,Bhandari, Karki and Negi worship goddess Kalika and enforce the rules forsacred forest .    3.1.2 Haat kalika non sacred forest: HaatKali non sacred forest is situated near Rawal goan in Gangolihat tehsil, ofPithoragarh district at an altitude of 1709 m asl covered with forest of Cedrus deodara Roxb. ex D.

Don. Localcommunities such as Rawal, Pant, Joshi, Pathak, Mehta, Bhandari, Karki andNegi.        3.1.3  Chamunda Devi Sacred Forest:Chamunda Devi sacred forest is devoted to Maa Chamunda, situated near Haneravillage in Gangolihat tehsil, of Pithoragarh district at an altitude of 1795masl covered with forest of Cedrus deodaraRoxb. ex D.Don, Established by Sankaracharya. Local communities such asPant, Joshi, Upreti, Bhandari, Tamta and Pathak worship goddess Chamunda.

3.1.4Chamunda devi non sacred forest: Chamunda Devi nonsacred forest is situated near Hanera village in Gangolihat tehsil, ofPithoragarh district at an altitude of 1765m asl covered with forest of Pinus roxburghii. Local communities suchas Pant, Joshi, Upreti, Bhandari, Tamta and Pathak. 3.1.5Betal Devta Sacred Forest: Sacred forest is tribute to GodBetal, situated near Siroli village Kanalichina tehsil, of Pithoragarh districtat an altitude of 1504m asl covered with forest of Quercus leucotrichophora.

It is rich in folk culture like songs,worship methods and established by local ensisters of village Siroli about 750year ago. Local communities Sirola, Upadhyay, Joshi, Bhandari and Arya found innearby villages such as Satgad, Bhandarigaon and Gudoli.3.1.6 Betal devta non sacred forest: Sacredforest situated near Siroli village Kanalichina tehsil, of Pithoragarh districtat an altitude of 1497m asl covered with forest of Quercus leucotrichophora. Local communities Sirola, Upadhyay,Joshi, Bhandari and Arya found in nearby villages.  3.1.

7  ThalKedar Sacred Forest: Sacred forest is tribute to Lord Shiva,situated  near Badabe village in ofPithoragarh district at an altitude of 2602m asl covered with forest of Quercus floribunda. Local communitiessuch as Bhatt, Joshi, Ram, Oli, and Negi worship god Shiva since about morethan 800 years .3.

1.8 Thal kedar non sacred forest:Sacred forest is situated near Badabe village in of Pithoragarh district at analtitude of 2575m asl covered with forest of Quercus floribunda. Local communities around forest are  Bhatt, Joshi, Ram, Oli, and Negi.

 3.1.9  GoluDevta Sacred Forest: Sacred forest situated near Ratwalivillage in Pithoragarh district at an altitude of 1823m asl covered with forestof Quercus leucotrichophora. ThisSacred forest devoted to God Golu believed as God of justice. Local communitiessuch as Joshi, Pandey and Mehta worship god Golu Devta since about 600 years.   3.

1.10  Golu devta non sacred forest: Sacredforest situated near Ratwali village in Pithoragarh district at an altitude of1809m asl covered with forest of Quercusleucotrichophora/pinus roxburghii. Local communities are Joshi, Pandey andMehta  3.

1.11  PasupatinathSacred Forest: Sacred forest is tribute to GodPsupatinath, situated near Dunga village Chandak, of Pithoragarh district at analtitude of 1906m asl covered with forest of Quercues lecucotrichophora. Local communities such as Joshi and Bisht worship god Pasupatinath sinceabout 250 years .3.1.12 Pasupatinath non sacred forest: Sacredforest is situated near Dunga village Chandak, of Pithoragarh district at analtitude of 1890 m asl covered with forest of Quercues lecucotrichophora.

 Local communities are Joshi and Bisht. 3.2ClimateWith the increasing or decreasing altitude theclimate of a region varies to a greater extent. The climate of the area istypically consists of mainly four distinct seasons- summer (April-July), rainy(August-September), autumn (Oct-Nov) and winter season (Dec-March). The temperatureranged between 3.20C to 28.70C in the study area duringthe study period, while rainfall ranged between 7 to 390 mm (Fig. 1a).

Averagemaximum rainfall recorded in monsoon (July 390mm) and minimum in autumn(November 7mm). Average maximum temperature was recorded in summer (28.7°C) andminimum in winter (3.2°C). The available information on climate and meteorologyof the area is presented in Fig. 1 (a& b).

a bFig.3.1. (a&b).Metereological Information from 2014 to 2016 ( www.Climate-data.

org.in)  UTTARAKHAND INDIA PITHORAGARH      Fig3.2: Map of Study area Pithoragarh (Google map)     2 1    12 4 3     6 5   Fig 3.3 : Map of study area (1. Haat Kalika sacred foest 2. Chamunda Devi Sacred Forest 3.

Pasupatinath Sacred Forest 4. Betal Devta Sacred Forest 5. Golu Devta Sacred Forest 6.

Thal Kedar Sacred forest). Google earth.       PHOTO PLATE 3.1: PHOTOGRAPHS OFSACRED AND NON SACRED FORESTS Thal kedar sacred forest Thalkedar non sacred forest BetalSacred forest  Betalnon sacred forest PasupatinathSacred forest  Pasupatinathnon sacred forest  Ratwalisacred forest Ratwalinon sacred forest   Chamundasacred and forest  Chamunda nonsacred forest Kalikasacred forest  Kalikanon sacred forest PHOTO PLATE 3.2: PHOTOGRAPHS OFTEMPLE OF LOCAL DEITIES 1. SF Haat Kalika   4.

SF Golu Devta 3. SF Chamunda Devi 6. SF Betal Devta 2. SF Thal Kedar 5.

SF Pasupatinath