Chapter: 2 Literature Reviewv Website qualityand consumer online purchase intentionTheterm of quality refers to features and characteristics of a product or aservice. Website quality refers to the characteristics of the website whichadds value to the customers (Chang, Kuo, Hsu, & Cheng, 2014). Consumerpurchase intention defined as the possibility that customer will willing to buya product later (Wu, P.C.S., Yeh, G.Y.
Y., Hsiao, C.R.
(2011). Consumer onlinepurchase intention referred to the willingness of the customers whether theywill buy a product via internet or not. The main purpose of website is to provideinformation to the consumers about all the products.
How a website can meet theexpectation of the customers? It is an important question which directly relateto the quality of website (Zahedi, 2009:5). In the e-commerce, one importantfactor is website quality because consumer’s perception of website qualitypositively influences his intention to use the website (H. H. Chang and S. W.
Chen, 2008) and this positive influence of use of website directly influencesthe consumer online purchase intention (D. H. McKnight, V. Choudhury, and C.Kacmar, 2002).Ine-commerce website quality has become an important task for the e-businessmenbecause without a good website quality they cannot attract the more customers. Websitequality influence the integrity and reliability of the company (Laja, 2015)which directly affect the consumer online purchase intention (Bai, Law, ., 2008).
Many researchers found that there is significant positiverelationship between the website quality and company trust (Mcknight,Choudhury, & Kacmarc, 2002). On the bases of marketing services, to attractthe new customer and to retain the customers customer’ needed informationshould be provided on the website (Hsu, Cheng, Chen, 2012). Baiet al.
in his study, studied the direct effect of the website quality on theconsumer satisfaction and his online purchase intention in china. The result ofhis study showed that website quality directly affects the consumersatisfaction and customer satisfaction directly influence the consumer onlinepurchase intention (Bai, B., R. Law and I. Wen, 2008). (Hasanov, J., & Khalid, H, 2015), analyzed the influence ofthe website quality towards the consumer online purchase intention of theorganic products in Malaysia and the results of study showed that websitequality had no direct impact on the consumer online purchase of the organicfood. Website quality influence the consumer online purchase intention withfully mediation role of customer satisfaction.
(Chang, Kuo, Hsu, & Cheng, 2014), in theirstudy tried to analyze the relationships among the website quality, websitebrand, perceived value, perceived trust and the consumer online purchaseintention in the sector of hotel which results showed that website quality hadindirect impact on consumer online purchase intention though the consumerperceived trust and the website quality and consumer perceived trust had strongerrelation if consumers perceived good website brand. Findings also indicatedthat the consumer perceived trust and consumer online purchase intention hadstrong relation if the consumer perceived high service quality Manyresearchers, in their studies had examined the impact of the website quality onconsumer trust and loyalty. The results of their studies showed that trust isone the important factor for the success of any e-commerce activity (Winnie,2014). (Octavia, D., &Tamerlane, A, 2017), in their study analyzed the impact of website quality onthe consumer online purchase intention with mediating role of consumerelectronic-trust. The results of their study showed that website quality hadsignificant impact on the consumer electronic-trust and electronic-trust of theconsumer also had significant impact towards the website quality. The resultsof a study also indicated that website quality had direct influence on theconsumer online purchase intention of air ticket Sam, M., Fazli, M.
,& Tahir, M. N. H. (2009).Variousdimensions of website quality have been identified by the researcher liketrust, reliability, ease of use and information quality (Barnes & Vidgen,2001). Hsu et al used the five dimensions in his study which were the customerperceived flow, service quality, perceived playfulness, system quality andinformation quality to measure the website quality (Hsu, Chang, & Chen,2012). Which’s results showed that service quality has a directly influence onthe consumer online purchase intention. (Kim, S.
and L. Stoel,2004) studied the different dimensions of website quality and find theinfluences of these dimension on customer satisfaction. They explored andexplained the six dimensions of website quality and then analyzed the directeffect of these six dimensions on the consumer satisfaction. The results of thestudy confirmed that these dimensions of website quality had direct influenceon the consumer satisfaction.
According to the (H. F. Lin, 2007) a model ofthree website quality’s dimensions was used, in which information quality andsystem quality were defined according to the technical perspective and servicequality was defined according to the customer’ perspective.Dimensions of websitequality Information quality referred to the amount ofthe information about the products and services which are offered on thewebsite (Nusair et al., 2008). Up-to-date and complete information are twoimportant factors that are included in information quality because these twofactors can increase the customer satisfaction and can change the consumeronline purchase intention (Afkhami, Torabi, 2012: 223). Bai et al, in hisresearch analyzed the direct effect of information quality on the consumersatisfaction and consumer online purchase intention (Bai, Law, & I., 2008).
The result of study showed that effective flow of information positivelyinfluences the consumer online purchase intention (Bai, Law, & I., 2008). System quality is defined as the level atwhich the consumer thinks that website is flexible, easy to understand,reliable, easy to use and effective. (Kirakowski, Claridge, & Whitehand,1998). Poor system quality decreases the consumer satisfaction and discouragethe consumer from the of use of website which directly influences the consumerpurchase intention.
online businesses can increase the rate of consumerpurchase intention and achieve their goals if their website system is properimplemented. Service quality refers to the overall analyses of consumerregarding the service which has received through the website (Palmer, 2002). ServiceQuality is also another important measure of website quality because service isconsidered an important factor of the consumer’s satisfaction which directlyinfluence the consumer decision making behavior and online purchase intention(Zivyar, 2012: 178). The result of Hsu’s study showed that service quality hasa direct influenced on the consumer online purchase intention (Hsu, Chang,& Chen, 2012).
Swaid and Wignd in his study explored the differentdimensions of the e-service quality (Swaid & Wigand, 2009). The resultsindicated that good customer relations, quick response, availability andassurance are some important dimensions of the e-service quality.Customerservice quality deals with the quick responses to the consumer’s questions.Lack of quick response to consumers, specially to the e-mails queries willcreate difficult situation to the consumers and this situation can affect theironline purchase intention. It means if the website will give the quick andimmediate response to the consumers queries, it can influence the consumers tovisit or re-visit the website for the online shopping (Mohd. Shoki, M.A.
, NgSze Yan, Norhayati Z., Kamaruzaman A.R, Khalid I. 2014) and (Shergil, G.S., andChen, Z. 2005).
Insteadof the website quality many research used the reputation one another importantfactor that stimulate the consumer purchase intention. Kim and Lennon in his study analyzed the impact ofreputation on the consumer online purchased intention (Kim & Lennon, 2013).Theresults showed that reputation and website quality has positive influence onthe consumer’s emotions but has a negative impact on the perceived risk. Manyresearchers indicated that perceived risk and emotions both are very importantfactor that effects the consumer online shopping behavior. (Changand Chen) in his study tried to be analyzed the impact of customer interfacequality, customer satisfaction and switching costs (Chang & Chen, 2008a). Asurvey was conducted to analyze the perceptions of the customers. The results showedthat the professional communication skills and interaction with them positivelyaffect the feelings of the customers.
Further, results of his study showed thatswitching costs were considered the main factor that effected the customere-loyalty.(Pan, Y., Wang, M.,Chen, C., & Qu, H, 2017) in their study found the influence of webexperience on the consumer online purchase intention which results showed thatweb experience positively relate to the consumer online purchase intention.
The others researcher in their study, analyzedthe impact of online store image and product brand image and perceived risk onthe consumer online purchase intention of apparels products which result showedthat product brand image and store image both indirectly had their impact onthe consumer online purchase intention for the apparel products (Aghekyan-Simonian, M., Forsythe, S., Kwon, W. S., , V. 2012).
(Belanche, D., Casaló,L. V., & Guinalíu, M. 2012), analyzed that effect of the website usabilityon the consumer satisfaction and intention to use of website which resultsindicate that website usability had not the direct effect on the consumerintention to use website but indirectly influence the consumer use of websitethrough the consumer satisfaction. (Hsuan-Yu Hsu and Hung Tai Tsou, 2011),investigated the impact of website quality on the consumers emotions and ontheir repurchase intention. The results indicated that website quality is positivelyassociated with the consumer positive emotions and these positive emotionspositively associated with the consumer repurchase intention. Consumer’ perceived riskConsumeronline perceived risk is defined as the consumers’ beliefs about the probabledoubtful negative consequences from the online shopping (Kim et al.
, 2008:Soto-Acosta et al., 2014).ThePerceived risk is considered very important factor for the online buyers duringthe online shopping particularly when they have no more information about thesellers Finch, B.J.
(2007). Perceivedrisk refers to uncertainty level of the consumers during online shopping. Accordingto the previous research, now perceived risk has become an important key factorfor the online consumer when they make the decision in online shopping processLiebermann, Y. and Stashevsky, S. (2002). (VinayKumar, Sumit Mishra, 2012), conduct a study on the customer attitude towardsthe online shopping with including the role of perceived risk which resultsindicated that the customer attitude towards the benefits and risk of onlineshopping negatively affect the customer online purchase intention.
(Bo Dai, Sandra Forsythe, Wi-Suk Kwon, 2014), analyzedthe effect of online shopping experience on the perception of consumerperceived risk and online purchase intention which results indicated thatonline shopping experience positively associated with the consumer onlinepurchased intention and consumer perceived risk.EmadY. Masoud, analyzed the impact of perceived risk on the consumer onlineshopping behavior in Jordan. In his study, he analyzed the impact of thedifferent dimension of the perceived risk like financial risk, productrisk, time risk, information security risk and delivery risk on the consumershopping behavior in Jordan. The results of the study showed that financialrisk, security risk and security risk had negative impact on the consumer shoppingbehavior while time risk and delivery risk had no impact on the consumer shoppingbehavior Emad Y.
Masoud (2013). Financial risk, privacy risk and security riskare very consequential factor that change the consumer online purchaseintention during making the online transaction (Wang and Mulligan 2004,Yousafzai, Pallister et al. 2005). Accordingto the consumers point of view, purchases that occur in a conventional storeare less risky than the purchases in online store Suki, N.
(2007). The buyerswho perceived high risk during the online shopping they purchase less than theother buyers who perceived low risk (Miyazaki and Fernandez). A study showedthat due to no physical appearance of buyer and seller in online shopping thelevel of perceived risk always remains high (Forsyth & Shi, 2003). (Huang, W. Y., Schrank, H.
, & Dubinsky, A.J, 2004), conducted a research to investigate the relationship of product brandname and consumer perceived risk in online shopping which results indicatedthat presence of product brand name deduced the consumer perceived risk.Sorce et al.(2005) in his study, supported the Bhatnagar et al. who explained the two kinds of risks:financial risk and the product category risk. The financial risk is related tothe security and privacy in which the consumers scared about the security oftheir financial information given to buyer during the online shopping and themisuse of their bank details (Goldsmith and Flynn, 2004).
Perceived risk varies accordingto the type of the product like in the purchase of the books the informationprovided on the website may be sufficient to decrease the level of the riskduring the online shopping process. Consumers’ perception of risk also remains thehigh on those products in which they want to feel and touch the products beforemaking the purchase. But in the purchase of glossary products consumers lookvery conscious about the quality, color and design and perceived high risk. Barnes et al (2007), explained that highperceived risk decreases the willingness of the buyers to purchase the productsfrom internet. There are many types of perceived risk that the consumers face inonline shopping. Claudia, I. (2012) studied the seven typesof perceived risk like financial risk, product risk, time risk, delivery risk,social risk, psychological risk and privacy risk that consumer face in onlineshopping. Meenakshi et al in his study showed that perceived trust, perceivedrisk and the benefits of the online shopping also affect the consumer onlineshopping behavior of the youngest.
Vijayasarathyet al. in his study analyzed the impact of perceived risk on the consumerattitude toward the online shopping and his intention to purchase online VijayasarathyLR, Jones JM (2000). While in the others study, the researchers found that theconsumer perceived risk may decreased with the increase of online purchaseexperience Miyazaki D, Fernandez Ana (2001).
Dimensions of perceived riskFinancialrisk referred to fear of monetary loss that can occur from online shopping.(Jacoby & Kaplan, 1972). Perceived financial risk is considered veryimportant risk factor from the consumers perspective, which they can faceduring the online shopping experience.
Fear of fraud, misuse of credit cardnumbers and online blackmailing are some causes that bound the customer to makethe purchase via traditional way instead of online. Previous research showedthat the fear of credit card number represented the one the important causeduring the online shopping according to the customers SaprikisV., Chouliara A., Vlachopoulou M., (2010).
Productrisk measures the consumer’s concern about the product quality, product size.Product color and falseness of the product. It is associated with thedisappointments of customers which they can experience when the purchasedproducts do not meet their expectations Forsythe S, Liu C, Shannon D, GardnerLC (2006). When purchasing happen in an online store, especially for theapparels products, it cannot be denied that consumers feel unsecure regardingthe product material, product size and product color. Parkand Stoel (2005), in their study agreed that apparels products like jeans,paints, sweaters and shirts are considered very high risks products because size,color, quality and fitting mattering to the consumers concern.Privacyrisk is defined as the probability of having the personal information which aredisclosed due to the result of online transaction (Garbarino ; 2004).
Privacy risk is negatively associated to the consumeronline purchase intention. Chapell’s survey (2005), found that 69% of US onlineconsumers stop to make the purchase via internet due to fear of their privateinformation because they feel that their personal information may be disclosed toanyone. Many researchers also found that consumers reluctant to provide theirpersonal information which are required during the online transaction likephone number, email address, home address and credit card number.Timerisk or convenience risk referred to the loss of time which the consumers can faceduring the searching and purchasing process of the online products. In the timerisk, consumers normally fear with the delivery of the products they feel thatcompany will not deliver the products within the given time or will not deliverthe product at the right place or the product packing will not be same (Claudia, 2012).
A research study showed that imerisk had no strong effect on the consumer online purchase intention as contrastto the other dimensions of perceived risk (financial risk, product risk and securityrisk) Crespo AH, del Bosque IR, de los Salmones Sanchez MG (2009), Onthe base of existing literature, it is cleared that many studies have beentaken on the website quality, the consumers online purchase intentions andconsumers online shopping behaviors by the researcher which’s results indicatedthat there exists a positive relationship between them. The research gap isperceived risk. The existing gap shows that there is need to investigate thewebsite quality and consumer online purchase intention with the moderating roleof perceived risk.