Capital City:Tokyo population: 13 million (city), 32.5 million people (metro area)Tokyo MetropolitanArea is the largest in the world with the second highest being in Seoul, SouthKorea, with a population of 20.5 million people. The LargestJapanese Cities: Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka, Kobe, Sapporo, Kyoto, Saitama, Fukuoka,Hiroshima, and SendaiPopulation: 127.3million 11th largest population country in the world (2016).Area: 377,864 sq.
km (145,894 sq. miles), 61st largest country by total land area.Main languages:Japanese, English (taught in high schools)Main religionsShintoism, Taoism, BuddhismMajor Ethnicgroups: Japanese (approximately 98% of population), Korean (0.5%), Chinese(0.4%), Other (1.
1%)Life expectancy atbirth: 80 years (men), 87 years (women) 83 years(average) Highest in the worldCurrency: JapaneseYen (?¥) UNDP HumanDevelopment Index (HDI): 0.891 (2015, 20th in the world)GDP per capita(International $, PPP): $36, 680 (2016 Worldbank)Literacy Rate, age15 and over can read and write: 99%Unemployment rate:Male: 8.7% Female: 7.1% (2012Rank in comparison to the world, 123) Geographically,Japan is an archipelago that consists of over 6,750 islands and volcanoeslocated in the Pacific Ring of Fire. The Pacific Ring of Fire has more than 70%of the world’s active volcanoes located on it and causes 90 percent of theworld’s earthquakes due to the immense amount of pressure created from thetectonic plates. Japan consists of four main islands, Honshu, Kyushu, Hokkaido,Shikoku, and make up 97 percent of the nation’s total land area. Closing thoughts:Japan is one of the most beautiful and geographically diverse nations in theworld with tropical jungles located in the southern parts of Kyushu and mountainplateaus covered in snow North of Hokkaido also featuring a Palace of ice inSapporo during the winter. It boasts a 99% literacy rate for both male andfemale, low unemployment rate, and a great opportunity for international trade.
PoliticalEnvironment The Japanese government is a constitutionalmonarchy that is divided into three branches; the Legislative, the Executive,and the Judicial. Their legal system is modeled after the European civil lawsystems and has English-American influence, judicial review of legislative actsin the Supreme Court, and they accept compulsory International Court of Justice(ICJ) jurisdiction with reservations. In the Executive branch, the chief of stateis Emperor Akihito.
The cabinet is appointed by the prime minster, which isPrime Minister Naoto Kan, who is the head of government. The judicial branchhas a Supreme court and the chief justice is appointed by the monarch and allother justices are appointed by the cabinet. Main Political Parties- The Liberal DemocraticParty of Japan (LDP): Centre-right, heads the ruling coalition.- Democratic Partyof Japan (DPJ): centrist, major opposition party.- JapanRestoration Party (JRP): right-wing, third largest force, but is slowly losingrepresentation.
– Komeito (NK): Centre-right,in coalition with the LDP.- JapaneseCommunist Party (JCP): left-wing, more than doubled its representation in thelast election. Current Political Leaders: Emperor: Akihito (since 7 January1989) – hereditaryPrime Minister:Shinz? Abe (since 26 December 2012) – Liberal Democratic Party Next Election DatesHouse of Representatives: On or before 13 December 2018House of Councilors:2019 Legal Environment Japan is a civillaw country, governed by laws passed by Parliament and interpreted bythe courts. At thebeginning of the Meiji era (1868-1912), the German and Frenchlegal systems werethe model for the Japanese court and legal system. After theSecond World War,a major reform of the legal system took place in Japan with manyof the revisedlaws being modeled on American law.
Today, the Japanese legal systemremains a hybridof the continental European system and the Anglo-American system. The Constitutionof Japan provides that all judicial power in Japan is vested in theSupreme Court andin such inferior courts as are established by law. The CourtOrganization Lawestablishes the following five types of courts in Japan listed in orderof judicialauthority, from highest to lowest:(1) Supreme Court;(2) High Courts,(3) DistrictCourts;(4) Family Courts;and(5) SummaryCourts.
All the courtshave their own jurisdiction as constituted by the post-war constitution of 1947.Each court renders a judgment independently and a decision of a superior courtbinds the courtsbelow in respectof the case concerned. In contrast to common law jurisdictions,there is noprinciple of stare decisis (i.
e., a court is not bound by a previous decision inadifferent case). EconomicEnvironment 3rd largesteconomy4th largestpurchasing power2nd largestdeveloped economyleading industrialclusters and manufacturing centersWorld’s largestCreditor Nation Participates inEconomic Partnership agreementsIs a member ofmultiple international trade organizations such as APEC, WTO, OECD, etc. Japan, the world’sthird largest economy, is highly exposed to external shocks because of itsstrong dependence on exports.
This vulnerability has been on display in recentyears, as its economy experienced periods of recession alongside the slowdownin the global economy. Natural disasters and backlash to the 2014 VAT increasehave furthered this recessionary trend. In 2015, growth remained sluggish(0.6%), driven by foreign trade and public consumption. It is expected torebound slightly in 2016, led by strong exports and household consumption. Moving forward,budgetary consolidation will remain a key issue for the country as it tries tobring its debt levels under control. The ageing of the population and politicaltensions with China and South Korea are additional concerns that Japan willhave to address in the years to come.
TechnologicalEnvironment/InfrastructureTechnological Environmentmeans forces that create new technologies, creating new product and marketopportunities (81). Japan is a good example of technological environmentbecause it is known for its high technology and it has its distinct market.This is especially true when one sees the cell-phone market in Japan. Cellphones are must have gadget to Japanese, especially for people in Tokyo wherethey spend majority of the day outside of their home. Japanese cell-phones havethus developed as more than a phone and have their own features. Thistechnological advance together with the high usage of cell phones caused Japanto have its own marketing system. Socio-CulturalEnvironmentJapan is a veryhigh-context culture – communication doesn’t require a lot of words, which canbe irritating for people from cultures with a lower context.
The context alsoincludes non-verbal communication, that is very important. There are books forforeigners that explain the different gestures and body language codes of Japanesepeople.Japanese avoid eyecontact when they want privacy and to stare into someone’s eyes, especiallywhen this person is older or has a higher status, is very impolite. It is alsointeresting that nonverbal messages can be clearer than words, as thehigh-contextuality of this culture allows words to have several meanings -whereas in western societies, words seem more reliable than the nonverbalcommunication.
In contrast to westernsocieties (and France), there is a high level of collectivism. At the sametime, or rather because of that, it is crucial to Japanese people to save theirface. They avoid direct confrontation and always stay polite. Therefore, thelevel of assertiveness is equal zero: being straightforward is social suicide.But there is not only this in-group collectivism – national institutions andthe organization of the whole culture is group-centered. The company is thesecond family and a lot of time is spent there. What western people callself-evaluation is not important to Japanese people – the group judges howeffective something is, not the individual. Because of the strong sense forgroups / the high level of collectivism, harmony is an extremely important valuein Japan.
Japan has long-termorientation. Traditional values are very important. Older people are held invery high esteem. The oldest person within a social group is always honored andrespected. When drinks are served, they are served first, and the drink ispoured for them. It seems like the importance of prestige and collectivism issomehow linked to this long-term orientation. The sad fact, that a lot of Japanesemen commit suicide can be explained that way. Back in the days, samurai used tocommit suicide to rehabilitate their prestige and honor.
Until today, Japanesemen that face a dramatic loss of esteem, commit suicide. A loss of esteem canalso be a scandal at work or a bad mistake that causes a setback for thecompany. Working for a company is also a long-term and future-oriented matter.That’s why in Japan, it is not (only) important to have great profit in aquarter year, but to have a strong company and serve the steak-holders in thelong run.Men were and still arethe leading group in Japan. Japan is a male-dominated country.
It is common forwomen to stay at home as housewife and mom once they are married and havechildren. Before women introduce themselves to others, it is also common tomention their men’s profession and children’s school first to express hersocial status. Genders are not equal in Japan.When it comes to powerdistance, it is important to notice that people have a strong sense forhierarchy. When your boss wants to drink tea with you, not accepting is ano-go. When you greet a person with higher power, you must bend your backenough to be physically lower than your opposite.
In school, children aretaught to address to older students as “seniors”. As all decisionsare made by groups though, the power distance is not as strong as the socialorder suggests.Concerning the level ofuncertainty avoidance, you can say that Japan belongs to the countries with thehighest level of uncertainty avoidance. The geographic setting threatens theirlife with earthquakes, tsunamis and volcano eruptions. To deal with thissituation, Japanese are used to prepare for worst-case scenarios.