C.Fermented Foods Exercise (750 words, the list of references is not included to the word count)Fermentation is the oldest method of food preservation. “Good” bacteria, yeasts and moulds transform animal and plant foods into products that not only last longer but also taste delicious. Use the literature to complete the table below. You should present at least two fermented foods in each category. The information should be cited and list of references should be included at the end of the report.Food group: DairyYogurt It is usually concurred with among historians that fermented milk products and yogurt were invented by accident as a result of milk being stored in warm climates by primitive methods.In the 1700s yogurt was brought to North America by Turkish immigrants but it was not that well-known until the 1940s when a small yogurt factory in the Bronx, New York was taken over by Daniel Carasso, the son of Danone founder Isaac, and Juan Metzger – now the company is known as Dannon in the United States.The first industrialized production of yogurt is attributed to Isaac Carasso in 1919 in Barcelona – his company “Danone” was named for his son, “Little Daniel”.Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus are species of bacteria used in yogurt and are also the main (starter) cultures. The bacteria are able to break this down to form lactic acid. The lactic acid both lowers the pH of the yoghurt, which helps to preserve.Store yogurt in the fridge is the best way to stop it from spoiling or food poisonous.Cheese The making of cheese could date back more to than 4,000 years according to ancient records passed down through the centuries. No one actually know who invented it and there are many ancient legends behind it.The making of cheese quickly spread in the New World, but it still remained merely local farm industry. It wasn’t until Jesse Williams built the first cheese factory in the United States in Oneida County, New York in 1851.Lactic acid bacteria are often called “starter cultures”, as they play the main role in converting the basic milk sugar, lactose, into lactic acid, a step which lowers cheese pH and makes the cheese inhospitable to many spoilage organisms and is the first step towards deliciousness.Cheese has many kinds and each kind has their way to be stored:Hard, aged cheeses (Parmigiano-Reggiano, aged Gouda): First wrap in wax or parchment paper, then add a layer of plastic wrap.Blue cheeses (Gorgonzola, Roquefort): Wrap in plastic wrap.Semi-hard and hard cheeses (Cheddar, Swiss, Gruyere): Wrap in plastic wrap.Soft, semi-soft, and stinky cheeses (goat, Camembert, Brie, Limburger): Place in a resealable plastic container.Fresh cheeses in water (mozzarella or Feta): Leave the cheese in the original packaging, changing the water every couple of days.Food Group: Meat and FishsausagesMainly Fermented sausages can be divided into two groups:Sliceable raw sausages (Salami, Summer Sausage, Pepperoni)Spreadable raw sausages (Teewurst, Mettwurst)Sausage that was first made by early human relies completely on bacteria present in meat and in surrounding microflora and not the starter culture techniques or sugar like present days.The production of fermented sausages in the countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea was the origin and it was claimed by most authors (e.g. Adams, 1986), although he also mentions Nham, the fermented pork sausage of Thailand as an example of other areas, where fermentation of meat was of local origin.Cultures can be classified into the following groups:lactic acid producing cultures (fermentation)color fixing and flavor forming cultures (color and flavor)surface coverage cultures (yeasts and molds)bio-protective cultures (producing bacteriocins). After opening a vacuum package, remove the remainder of the package. Rewrap sausage tightly to keep air out. If sausage is moist, wipe dry before re-packaging.Katsuobushi It’s a dried, fermented, and smoked skipjack tuna and also called dried bonitoThe production fermented dried bonito, began around the middle of Edo period (1603-1868). At present, Makurazaki, being home to a fishing port that boasts top-level catches of skipjack tuna, produces more katsuobushi than anywhere else. Microorganism in katsuobushi consists of mold which helps to decompose fat, breaks down proteins into amino acids and other nitrogenous compounds, which also increase savor and keeps off other microorganisms.Store it in dried placeFood group: VegetablesKimchiKimchi is a traditional fermented ethnic food of Korea, which consists of vegetables such as Chinese cabbage fermented with lactic acid bacteria. In the Samkuksaki (????), the Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, people at that time already had kimchi in the three states around 1,500 years agoThe major microorganisms responsible for the fermentation process are isolated and identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Leuconostoc citreum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Streptococcus faecalis.If opened and stored in the fridge, it will not last years, but will last weeks.Pickled cucumbersPickles have been around for thousands of years, dating as far back as 2030 BC when cucumbers from their native India were pickled in the Tigris ValleyIn the late 1800s and early 1900s, When a large number of eastern European Jews arrived in New York City, kosher dill pickles was introduced to America. Present day, a plate of pickles is normally served complimentary with a meal at the best Jewish delis.Vinegar is not used in the brine of naturally fermented pickled cucumbers. The fermentation process is completely relies on the naturally occurring Lactobacillus bacteria that usually coat the skin of a developing or growing cucumber.Pickles should be stored at dry places.Food group: Beverages (Non-alcoholic)KombuchaKombucha is a well-known one of living health drink made by fermenting sugar and tea with the kombucha culture. The taste resulting to something between champagne and sparkling apple cider, depending on what kind of tea you use.The root of Kombucha have lost in time. However Far East, possibly in china is thought to be the origin as it has been consumed over there for minimum two thousand years. 221 BC during the Tsin Dynasty of China was the first registered use of kombucha. It was known as “The Tea of Immortality”.For several centuries Russia, Eastern Europe and Japan has been used Kombucha and the name kombucha came from Japan in 415 AD.Gluconacetobacter kombuchae is an anaerobic bacteria that is distinctive to kombucha. It feeds on nitrogen that is found in tea and produces acetic acid and gluconic acid, as well as building the scoby. Zygosaccharomyces kombuchaensis is a yeast strain that is unique to kombucha. https://www.culturesforhealth.com/learn/kombucha/kombucha-bacteria-yeast/RyazhenkaRussian and Soviet sources call it “Ukrainian ryazhenka”67 or “Ukrainian soured milk” (?????????? ???????????, ukrainskaya prostokvasha)8910 and attribute its origin to Ukrainian cuisine.3 The name is cognate with the Ukrainian ???????? as in ??????? ?????? (pryazhene moloko, “baked milk”).11Or fermented baked milk Ryazhenka is one of the numerous varieties of Russian cultured milk. It is prepared by fermenting milk after it was baked at low oven temperature for 6-8 hours. During that time, some of the water evaporates, and Maillard reaction occurs between amino acids and sugar, which gives milk light brown tint and wonderful caramel-like flavor. It resembles the taste of evaporated milk, if you ever tried it, but I think it’s much better. Traditionally, sour cream is used to trigger the fermentation, but you can also use kefir or buttermilk as well. Sour cream cultures give it a creamier, more yogurt-like consistency. With kefir, you get a bit of that characteristic graininess and a more sour taste.Lactic bacteria responsible for the fermentation of ryazhenka are Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Food group: Beverages (alcoholic)VodkaOrigin of vodka was in Eastern Europe and the name came from the water which in Russian is ‘voda’ or, as the Poles would say ‘woda’. The first ever production of vodka was documented at the end of the 9th century in Russia.but according to the Vyatka Chronicle of 1174. Khylnovsk, was the first known distillery around 200 years later.Although Poland tends to claim they had first distilled vodka in the 8th century. However It actually was 11th century when gorzalka, the first identifiable Polish vodkas and it was used as medicines appeared.www.ginvodka.org/history/vodkaHistory.aspPresently, vodka uses lactic acid as an inoculation against bacteria. http://www.madehow.com/Volume-5/Vodka.html#ixzz53tpwkkErCiderThe Greeks and Romans mastered the art of cider making. When Romans invaded England around 55 BC, they found that cider was already being enjoyed by the locals there. By that time, apple trees had long ago migrated from forests around Kazakhstan and were well established across Europe and Asia. It was in southern England, France, and Spain that the technique of fermenting—and later distilling—the fruit was perfected. Evidence of this ancient art can be found in the European countryside today, where large circular apple grinding stones used to crush the fruit are still half buried in the fields.First, yeast converts the sugar to alcohol and then lactic acid bacteria convert the natural malic acid into carbon dioxide.California Cider was founded by Jeffrey House and formally incorporated in July 1993. The company makes “hard cider,” an alcoholic beverage fermented from apples, and was one of the first hard cider companies formed in the US after the end of Prohibition.