Birch a higher burden of disease, and poverty reflected


Birch (2015) stated that a growing concern for the Australian economy is the
rising predominance of stoutness. Prior to the 1970s, several localized studies
suggested that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (respectfully referred to
as Aboriginal hereafter) children had better oral health than their
non-Indigenous peers; although, a nation-wide generalization of this assertion
is not without dispute ( Schluter et al., 2016).
It is now generally recognized that Aboriginal children and adults have poorer
oral health, and poorer access to health care than their non-Indigenous
counterparts. There are many contributing factors including: the enduring
effects of colonisation, a higher burden of disease, and poverty reflected in
poor housing, lack of employment and reduced access to services ( Dudgeon et al., 2011). As
health professionals, we must look beyond individual attributes of Indigenous Australians
to gain a greater understanding and a possible explanation of why there are
such high rates of ill health issues such as alcoholism, depression, abuse,
shorter life expectancy and higher predominance of infections including
diabetes, coronary illness and weight in our indigenous population (Shepherd et al., 2012). However, they did lots of efforts to gain
their rights but many times they got very disappointed results. This essay will
highlight the main key factors that are responsible for the poor the health of
indigenous people and also overviews the practices made by them to obtain their



First of all,
the major reason for the poor health of aboriginal people was the social and
economic status of indigenous people. At the
2001 Census, the unemployment rate for Indigenous peoples was three times higher
than the rate for non-Indigenous Australians ( Altman & Anne, 2010). Altman & Anne  (2010) described
that at the
2001 National Census, the average gross household income for Indigenous peoples
in Australia was $364 per/week, or 62% of the rate for non-Indigenous peoples
($585 per/ week) which results in Poorer income reduces the accessibility of
health care services and medicines. Poor education and literacy are linked to
poor health status, and affect the capacity of people to use health information ( Altman & Anne, 2010). It was also
considered that overcrowded and run-down housing is associated with poverty and
contributes to the spread of communicable disease ( Green, 2014). Waterworth et al. (2015) depicted that financial factor
contribute to a greater burden of unhealthy stress and can impact on the body’s
immune system, circulatory system, and metabolic functions through a variety of
hormonal pathways and is associated with a range of health problems from
diseases of the circulatory system (notably heart disease), mental health
problems, violence against women and other forms of community dysfunction. The psychological distress created by economic hardship
reduced the capacity to focus upon health behaviour and increased the
propensity to engage in unhealthy coping mechanisms such as smoking and alcohol
use ( Waterworth et al., 2015). The WAACHS found that the
natural safety and the passionate and social strength of Indigenous youngsters
enhanced with confinement Children living in Perth had fundamentally poorer
enthusiastic and social wellbeing than those living in extremely remote groups
( Dudgeon et al., 2011).The report concludes that traditional cultures and ways
are protective against poor environmental safety and emotional and social
health. To the degree perceiving Indigenous people groups’ entitlement to
self-assurance underpins groups to recover control of their lives, including
through the support of customary societies, it can be comprehended as having
constructive wellbeing impacts. It is additionally a venturing stone to the
objective of social and economic correspondence. Experience from overseas
affirms that Indigenous people group’s control over their own issues can be
vital to their social and financial recovery.

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the destitution and imbalance that they experience is a contemporary reflection
of their historical treatment.
Australia has a long legacy of racism and this is also responsible for the poor
health of aboriginal and Torres islanders ( Dudgeon et al., 2011). It was defined by Dudgeon et al. (2011)
that racism
is a stressor that has been reported to affect both mental and physical health.
This was thought to produce psychological distress that impeded consideration
of appropriate health behaviour; created psychological barriers between the
Indigenous and non-Indigenous people; and increased the necessity for coping
strategies ( Waterworth et
al., 2015). While considering the history of aboriginal
people Hampton et al. (2013) explained
that in 1883, Aboriginal
individuals were expelled from the “white society” and put on stores
and missions for security this implied native individuals had constrained
access to services needed to help them survive after the outbreaks of disease
and attempted murders against them. Colonization
upset Indigenous Australian people groups’ associations with place and profound
convictions, abandoning them feeling stripped of ‘nation’ emblematically and
geologically and because of this individuals lost their physical and social
association with the land, and to the geographic association with their
conviction frameworks, separating their spiritual and magical associations
(Hampton et al., 2013). There
are other lots of other historical factors that are responsible for the poor
health of aboriginal people. Indigenous societies have
endured dispossession and feebleness, and pioneer predominance keeps on
utilizing social, financial and media implies for mastery. Debilitation and
dispossession from one’s territory has noteworthy ramifications for confidence
and prosperity among indigenous societies and people (Hampton et al., 2013).


Lastly, the perceived influence of socio-cultural factors on
health behaviour of indigenous people.  Green (2014) said that culture
was identified as key to an Indigenous point of view, and hence, considerably
impacted wellbeing conduct and factors that influence wellbeing conduct. Specifically,
the social significance of associations inside a more distant family system, or
connection gathering, was accentuated as persuasive on wellbeing conduct
(Hampton et al., 2013). Waterworth et al. (2015) said that the Indigenous
individuals they bolstered by and large had an agreeable, sharing way of life.
With regards to monetary hardship, the want to share and be sociable encouraged
acts, for example, sharing cigarettes, which had an awful impact on indigenous