Being the center ofweather and climate related services, Department of meteorology provides manyservices in Sri Lanka. There are many services that MET department provides forthe government agencies, private sector and general public in keeping withnational interests and international standards. Some of them are provision ofmeteorological and climate services to general public, fishery, shipping,insurance and other interested sectors, weather forecast for general public, provision of warnings andadvisories weather hazards (bad weather and Tsunami warnings), Maintenance ofclimatological database and climatological forecasts, supply the aviation andMarine meteorological services, Provision of meteorological and climatologicalservices and data for the national development and research purposes, Encouragestudy and research in meteorology and allied subjects while suppling awarenessand trainings for interested parties such as students, agriculture sectors,police etc, and provision of specialized meteorological and climatologicalservices on request. Various instruments and tests carriedout by the Meteorology department Mainly having an Instrument Division, they maintainand calibrate instruments with the conformity of standards of practices andprovide those calibrated instruments to observation centers, inspect routine ofinstruments at stations of meteorological , agrometeorological andrainfall, test, calibrate, and comparethe instruments and they make arrangements to prepare necessary supporting equipmentand the housing for the meteorological instruments. Basicallythere are main two types of data as surface data and Up-air data which they usefor the tests that they carry out. To collect these data, the department ofmeteorology uses various instruments. Below is a concise list of them alongwith their use.
1) Anemometer–measures wind speed2) Windvane – gives wind direction3) Drybulb thermometer – normal ambient temperature4) Wetbulb thermometer – relative humidity, dew point and vapor pressure5) Maximumthermometer – maximum temperature of the day6) Minimumthermometer – minimum temperature off the day7) Graphmeter – continuous variation of the temperature8) Hairhydrograph – relative humidity9) Barometer– atmospheric pressure10) Rain gauge – rainfall11) Sunshine recorder – sun shininghours12) Balloons – temperature, pressureand humidity of upper air13) Evaporation pan – rate ofevaporation Other than Instruments there are many tests carriedout at the department and few of them are as follows.1) Pilotballoon Observation – To find wind speed and direction. In this test theytackle the path of the balloon using a theodolite. 2) Rainfallmearing test – Automated raingauges may use to collect the rainfall data around the areas. Rainfall is measureddaily at 08.
30 hours at these stations and the daily rainfall report isobtained by the Department at the end of the month for processing. Relevance of meteorological data in thecontext of hydrology Since the sections of Hydrology and Meteorology inthe Geophysical Union are organized and the respective fields of activity aredefined, the interrelationship between them is obvious. In the water cycle,water condenses in clouds, is precipitated as rain or snow, then flow over andthrough earth’s crust , accumulates in oceans and then again taken back to airby evaporation and transpiration and condensed in to clouds.
So in this processhydrology works within that portion of this cycle which passage of waterthrough and over Earth’s crust while the section of Meteorology works withinthe portion which water go through atmosphere. So in this cycle each field ofactivity begins once another field ends. Hence one section is related toanother. So the obvious contact between the sections of hydrology andMeteorology are in those phases which relate to transfer of water from theatmosphere to earth’s crust (precipitation) and the reverse of it as transferfrom earth’s crust to the atmosphere. (Evaporation)Overview of different aspects includingwhether forecast , climate change. Forecasting is analyzing the meteorological data andstudying their behavior with time factor and make the path to understand thecoming weather. Surface and upper air observation data, radar information,persistence, NWP models and satellite data are tools used in forecasting.Forecasting process is first analyze the data, verify them, check forcontinuity, Extrapolate, use NWP, use climatology and experience and finallypreparation the forecast.
After the preparation of the forecast it must bedisseminated among the concerned stake holders and the public at the fastestspeed possible. Types of forecasting are Marine forecasting, Fleet forecast,Aviation forecasting. Climate change occurs naturally but has to beconcerned about it since it can effect for human nature. If the change occursslowly, living things including humans can adapt for it. But today due to thehuman activities like driving, greenhouse effects, manufacturing, and clearingof forests may cause for rapid changes in climate such as temperature rising, droughts,changing of precipitation patterns, heat waves, rising of sea level, sudden andstronger hurricanes.
So using collected data Meteorology department predict theupcoming climate changes which can occur.Comment on the impact of the climatechange on hydraulic design Due to the change in climate change rainfall,evaporation and other factors may change. So if the rainfall is high intensityof precipitation and evaporation may increase, so it will affect for the flood.
So in designing purposes flood changed flood patterns should consider.Intensity of tropical cyclones may increase due toclimate change, So the structures should be built for more durability. Andflood levels may also change.When sea level rises due to climate change theaffected countries and that areas should have sustainable hydraulic design.References· file:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/bookeng%20(1).pdf· Presentations of Department ofMeteorology