Assignment 10.1: Conflict Intervention Case Study
Topic: India and Pakistan’s Kashmir Dispute
Simranjit Singh Gill
CMM 521: Managing
December 12th, 2017
India and Pakistan Kashmir dispute is 69
years old, world’s longest running conflict in history. Kashmir is referred as dangerous
place on the earth. The two countries have been fighting over Kashmir since
they both got independence in 1947. So far India and Pakistan have fought three
wars against each other since 1947. Aside from India and Pakistan, China also
claim Aksai Chin which is part of Kashmir. This conflict continues today, which
involves three nuclear powers – India, Pakistan and China. Due to this territorial conflict, more than 70,000 people have
been killed and around 8,000 are still missing after 1988 (in 1988 both
countries became nuclear powers).
BATNA between India and Pakistan
There is no doubt to say that a Negotiated Agreement
between India and Pakistan would save two large humanities and help them
survive, not to starve and develop, reduce international tensions and both the
countries will cease to be market places or play grounds for weapon dealers (Babu, 2010). But to achieve this peace between both countries,
both parties should be ready to understand and face best and worst
Figure 1: Map
view of Kashmir occupied by India, Pakistan and China
relinquished Kashmir control of the Indian subcontinent in 1947, splitting it
into a predominantly Hindu India and a Muslim Pakistan. So, India
still claim Kashmir based on it’s both Hindu and Muslim population.
for India could be reclaiming of Pakistan Occupied Kashmir and eternal peace,
while worst could be to continue with terrorism or losses in War like losing
some more territory etc. (Khan,
Jammu and Kashmir based on
its majority Muslim population.
Pakistan, BATNA could be separation of Kashmir to wreck vengeance against
India for it helped separation of Bangla from Pakistan in 1971 (Khan, 2017).
claim Aksai Chin as it took it over during the Sino-Indian War of 1962
for China could be keep Aksai Chin from Kashmir and don’t intervene in India
& Pakistan Kashmir dispute.
Figure 2. Chart
showing the parties involved, their interest and BATNA’s (Best Alternative for
Figure 3: Spiral
of Unmanaged Conflict
Kashmir conflict falls at the very top
of the spiral chart (Figure 3), because it’s been long time since this dispute
is going on and currently dispute is at highest intensity which is still
causing wars and unresolved problems. For India and Pakistan, Kashmir is integral
part of their countries so for them it shouldn’t be open for dispute. And to
resolve this dispute, both parties don’t show any flexibility or involvement.
Another reason, Kashmir conflict keeps
on exaggerating till now is due to aggressive and derogatory marks passed by government
representative and agencies, this behavior from both parties leads to avoidance
and competition which is not appropriate to resolve this dispute.
The governments of India failed to bring
people of Kashmir into fold rather they always treat them always considered this to be a bi-party issue involving India and
Pakistan. Over time, this conflict has grown so big that it’s seems
impossible to resolve this longstanding conflict now. This conflict could be resolved
with different conflict intervention strategies like collaboration or compromise
and this is possible if both parties willing to accommodate each other’s needs.
Between collaboration and compromise, collaboration is the best conflict
intervention strategy because, compromise can result in temporary solution but
not good for long term. As you can see in the figure 4 below, cooperative behavior
between both parties should be really high to reach the conflict resolution through
collaboration or compromise.
Figure 4: Different approaches to manage conflict
To handle conflict resolution, parties
can go for different strategies like forcing, accommodating, avoiding, compromising
and collaborating but research shows that from these fives strategies, conflict
parties often go for one or two strategies more than others. For example, collaboration
and compromise always great to resolve interpersonal disputes, and collaboration
can resolve any trivial dispute where both parties understand each other
concerns and find satisfactory and win-win solution.
When both parties collaborate to resolve a conflict,
they openly express their concerns and work to find a mutually beneficial
solution. This is how one can break free of the “win-lose” paradigm
and seek the “win-win.” This can be effective for complex scenarios where
you need to find a novel solution. However, comprise
resolution strategy is the “lose-lose” scenario
where neither party really achieves what they want. This requires a
moderate level of assertiveness and cooperation. It may be appropriate for
scenarios where you need a temporary solution, or where both sides have equally
important goals. The trap is to fall into compromising as an easy way out, when
collaborating would produce a better solution (Hawke, Roc & Ridgway, 1992).
Babu, D. S. (2010). The
Kashmir conflict. Delhi: Routledge India.
Hawke, K., Roc, M., &
Ridgway, J. (1992). Conflict resolution. South Melbourne: Macmillan Education
Khan, M. A. (2017). Kashmir
Conflict: Tracing the History Suggesting the Solution. Retrieved December 15,
2017, from http://www.academia.edu/6256491/Kashmir_Conflict_Tracing_the_History_Suggesting_the_Solution.