Assignment to large scale farming, pastoralism, and deal with


Assignment #1                                                   Herman Ntuku                                                 February 1st

This paper is the analysis of the basic gender
arrangement that creates inequality between men and women and its disadvantageous
impacts for both women and men. Some of the mention points will be supported by
so vivid examples that have occurred in different context within the society.
As much as it seems like gender arrangements differs among different societies,
consider the example of parts of Asia where women participate in roads
construction while in Europe is considered men’s’ work.  In other cultures men’s involved in
purchasing household items while women control the purchases, conversely,
Islamic cultures men’s are responsible in controlling everything that related
to family finances.

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One of the gender arrangement
is division of labor, different works that are been divided between women and
men according to their gender can be referred to the gender division of labor. These
categories of work is attributed partly because of biological traits; however
in other societies women are doing works that are being considered as men’s
work in other societies. In some societies works that are considered for women
are like cooking, cleaning, washing clothes, fetching for water, small scale
agriculture and others that have direct relation with house care, even if they
have got a paid job. Other works that related to large scale farming,
pastoralism, and deal with mechanical and or electrical are typically man’s

However, division of labor
as gender is concerned not all time is fixed; it varies and also it changes in
relation to wider changes in economic, political and social.


women still fare worse than their male counterparts. As seen in rural areas,
both males and females are disadvantaged; but, men are still more successful
than half of their female counterparts. Some females don’t even receive any
formal education at all! The same trend can be seen in the urban workforce
where only 20 percent of women have achieved this educational status. (FAO,

There is a huge difference between women and men employment rates, in
2006 there was a different of 10 percentage points between men and women. Women
still lag behind particularly in urban areas where they occupied 74.8 percent
against 85.1 percent of men (FAO, 2006).


associate the particular work with the particular gender because of either
being masculine or feminine. This is very bad perception among different gender
in the society because women who are engineers by professional had to hide
their talent, similarly women were not appointed in the military services and
or as police office because they were regard as weak also they lack strength.
Likely, man could never become housekeeper; fashion designer also has never
engaged in household keeping as cooking, cleaning, washcloths, this took place
till last century.

a long run, this creates a big disadvantage in career choices for both genders
in the society, which lead to encounter of the wrong people in the wrong





Unlike the concept of division of labor, women’s
dependency on men economically prove to be a fundamental properly of gender
relations in all industrial societies, few tries have been made so as to see
how far and to what extent this degree of dependency men support women. Dependency
and support substantiate be the effect of a sexual division of labor in which
the basic responsibility for women remain to be child care and house care while
men have to obtaining an income for the family.

In other word, despite real and important
changes in women’s earned incomes, men have maintained their centrality as the
principal supporter of the family, and women continue to have primary
responsibility for family care. Men are still the more fortunate gender when it
comes to financial capabilities and sustaining their own livelihood. A wife
must still depend on her husband to keep her and the household financially
sound. The reality about support and dependency has been largely indistinguishable,
that making it difficult to prove the theoretical claims on how important is
it. (Barrett, 1980)

Hence, a married couple is more likely to
make choices that advance the husband’s career at the expense of the wife’s
career. The argument is that economic support obligations are more likely to
encourage individual growth and development, whereas dependence more often acts
as a barrier to growth.

Women have found success in the form of subsistence
farming. This is only witnessed in the rural areas where women cede their male
counterparts; and are not as economically disadvantaged. However, rural labor
is the only area where this can be seen and also where women are more
accomplished. This is quite the opposite in the urban workforce where it is
predominately male.

In conclusion, there is well-established reality that
gender arrangements, in recent years there 
has been rapid changes; Women’s labor force and participation in
decision making rates are approaching those of men’s and their employment
patterns over the life course are becoming less responsive to family
responsibilities. Self-reliant among women’s gainful employment and involvement
into labor force, has no doubt that it lead to the family income and
contribution thus decrease the level of dependence on their men.

The governments in different countries and
particularly Tanzania has put more efforts as well as empower gender working
group that has been effective in various sectors like pressure groups, local
government, legal and education. Those groups helped to reinforce and integrate
gender aspects into different seminars, dialogues, policy formulation and
implementation as well as to monitor progress.

Additionally, as new division of labor is concerned,
the accountability among development actors, government, civil society and other
development agencies demonstrate great improvement. Although, there is a need
for government to enhance its capacity in order to reinforce gender issues into