Antibiotic is one of the greatest discovery made inmodern medicine. It acts to fight infections or disease that are caused bybacteria. However, it does not act to kill viral infections or diseases such ascolds and flu. (NHS UK, 2016). Antibiotic is produced by bacteria and fungifound in the natural environment.
(Clardy, Fischbach and Currie, 2009). Different antibiotics have different mode of action ofattacking bacterial cells. They aredivided into two groups on the basis of their effect on bacterial cells. Bactericidalantibiotics induce cell death, whereas bacteriostatic antibiotics stop bacterialgrowth (Pankey andSabath, 2018). Antibiotics act on bacteria by; interfering in DNA synthesis, RNA synthesis, cell synthesisand protein synthesis (Kohanski, Dwyer and Collins, 2010).
They could also bedivided on what type of bacteria they attack. Narrow spectrum antibiotics arespecific to certain groups or strain of bacteria and attack these. Whereasbroad spectrum antibiotics induce cell death to a wide range of bacteria (P et al., 2012) Antibiotics are among the most successful drugs everdeveloped, however soon after their discovery, bacteria are become moreresistant to them. Antibiotic resistant is a global crisis as it leads to anincrease in morbidityrates, mortality rates, and healthcare costs. (6) the World HealthOrganization has named antibiotic resistance as one of the three most importantpublic health threats of the 21st century(World Health Organization, 2017).
Bacteriacan become resistant to antibiotics when it is able to survive high toxicconcentration needed to kill them. They are able to survive and grow. (1). Resistance to antibiotic is a massive threat globally, inpractically in hospitals where bacteria have more of a chance to come intoclose contact with one another. This leads to a spread of the resistance, as aresult harder to treat. ((Sosa et al.
, 2010) . Antibioticresistance can be divided into two groups, depending on their actions. They caneither be intrinsic or acquired and if it involves changes to bacterial cells. Intrinsic resistance refers to bacteriagenetic mechanism does not change in the presence of antibiotic selective pressure.The bacteria do get effected by the high toxic concentration from antibiotics. Itdoes this by carry out mechanism to protect itself. acquired resistance occurswhen a genetic mutation occurs or a mutated DNA is transferred into thebacteria by another resistant bacteria ((Culyba, Mo and Kohli, 2015) Bacteria carry out different mechanism to protect themselves fromantibiotics.
They can either change the target site that antibiotic inserttheir effect on or they can breakdown antibiotics. Bacteria has many methodsin preventing the antibiotics from reaching the target site. Efflux pump isresponsible for transporting substance such as antibiotics out of the bacteriacell.
As a result, this lowers the antibiotic concentration within the bacteriawhich prevent it from inducing cell death. (Webber, 2002) bacteria can also reduce permeability oftheir own membrane, thus preventing anything to pass through. Therefore, thisstops antibiotic to enter and destroy the bacteria. (Delcour, 2009). There is bacterialenzyme that can inactivate certain antibiotics.
?-lactamase is an example, it acts on ?-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin’s.(Munita and Arias, n.d.).
Bacteriacan also exchange DNA between each other. This allows a spread of resistancegenes. DNA piece called a plasmid is able to be transferred between bacteria’seasily.
Bacteria can carry out a process known as conjugation, in which twobacteria are able to connect to each other to transfer DNA plasmid. This increasesthe spread of resistance genes from one bacteria to another. (Agn? et al., 2011) Viruses known as bacteriophagescan infect bacteria. These viruses carry resistant genes from one bacteria toanother, ultimately spreading antibiotic resistance.
(Balcazar, 2014) Certain bacteriaare an essential the environment. They are important for the global ecosystem. Withoutthem, natural compounds would not be broken down from soils and organic matter.Antibiotics is naturally found in soils and surrounding environment. Unfortunately,there is an increase in resistance to antibiotics.
(Kummerer, 2004) Resistance is present within bacteria in theenvironment through exposure to naturally occurring antibiotics. These bacteriacan spread resistance genes. This causes a massive risk to the humanpopulation. Recent paper suggest that wild animals could also spread bacteriaresistance through their faeces into the surrounding environment. This couldeventually spread to livestock and to human.