An Assessment Of Human Resource Management Essay

1.1.0 Introduction

The function of Non-Governmental Organizations ( NGOs ) in development of less developed states, Ghana inclusive, can non be overemphasized. In Ghana, NGOs operate in about every sector of the economic system supplying support to authoritiess ‘ development attempts. These NGOs are international or local organisations and in some cases, community-based or faith-based organisations. They are non-profit orientated organisations and as their name implies, are non-governmental entities ( BANGO, 2009 ) . A reference can be made of NGOs in all territories, municipalities and cities, including the Techiman Municipality in the Brong Ahafo.

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NGOs engage human resources for their operations which harmonizing to Ivancevich and Matteson ( 1987 ) are common and most valuable assets to every organisation. The direction of these human resources in these organisations is of great significance ; given the current tendencies of globalisation and technological development and their related influence on organisational construction and strategic direction which have greatly influenced the organisational environment, doing the handling of human resource issues more complex than before ( Goss, 1997 ) . Richard Donkin puts it that how work is been done today is different from how it was done 50 or 100 old ages ago and that there have been specifying minutes in the relationship between employers and employees therefore, necessitating alterations in the direction of people today as against the past ( Donkin, 2001 ) .

Individuality and consumerism as in the socio-cultural dimension of organisations have all greatly influenced the organisational environment.

Issues of human resources have become more planetary than before with ensuing international human resource deductions such as employment instability. Again, there are alterations in the accomplishments and competences needed by a labour force. For case, computer-literacy has in recent old ages become a basic demand for some employment ventures. Technology besides allows some employees to work from their ain places. Harmonizing to Barnatt ( 1995 ) , there is even the anticipation that concern of the hereafter will be conducted in cyber-space through practical organisations.

In human resource footings these demand new signifiers of developing stressing the demand to lend non merely attempt and accomplishment but besides to take duty for the selling and after service attention of end products ( Goss, 1997 ) . In peculiar, it demands employees who are capable of invention and flexibleness, prepared to take hazards and embrace new thoughts instead than merely following regulations and following with higher-ups ‘ instructions ( Evans and Doz, 1989 ) . These fortunes call for organisational reawakening-NGOs inclusive to the melody of human resource direction that will guarantee organisational endurance and growing, hence the necessity and criticalness of the appraisal in this survey to determine the how of its pattern in the face of the alterations. PROBLEM STATEMENT

The figure of NGOs in Ghana in recent old ages is on the addition. The local and community 1s, particularly, are largely established and managed by persons or with a few staff ( BANGO 2009 ) . NGOs play really important functions in development. NGOs create and offer employment as they engage human labor for their operations. How these organisations manage their human resource is critical and deserving knowing. This is peculiarly so because the pattern of traditional forces direction has been mistaken by many for human resource direction ( Goss 1997 ) .

“ Human resource direction addresses the issues of staffing, public presentation assessments, compensation and benefits, preparation and development, employee and labor dealingss, safety and wellness and human resource research. Human resource direction is responsible for how people are treated in organisations. It is responsible for conveying people into the organisation, assisting them execute their work, counterbalancing for their labour and work outing jobs that arise ” hypertext transfer protocol: // Harmonizing to Goss ( 1997:1 ) , human resource direction in its wide footings “ claims to be the fresh attack to the direction of people that reflects a concern with the flexibleness and adaptability of labor and the integrating of human resource issues with an organisation ‘s wider ends and aims

” In a simple sense, human resource direction implies using people, developing their resources, using and counterbalancing for their services. It focuses, though non entirely, on: human resourcing, appraisal, human resource development, wages, committedness and employee engagement and public assistance as rudimentss ( Goss 1997 ) – a definition considered for this survey. Traditional forces direction on the other manus is about the direction of people that reflects the preparation and monitoring conformance to regulations and processs ( Goss, 1997 ) .

In his ‘ideal type ‘ , Storey ( 1992 ) distinguishes between human resource direction and traditional forces direction. To Storey, human resource direction emphasizes on open-ended contracts instead than rule-bound occupation descriptions. Management and the work force assume to portion a common involvement in the success of the organisational.

Labour-management dealingss are a affair of strategic concern as they impact upon concern public presentation and client services. Individual public presentations are rewarded with small focal point on pre-determined rights and outlooks.

Storey on the other manus, sees traditional forces direction as stressing on clearly defined contracts and written regulations where direction action is governed by conformance to processs and imposts and pattern. Here, the work force is monitored and controlled by direction based on the premise that each has a divergent involvement. ‘Good ‘ labour relation is cardinal concern but is dealt with in a bit-by-bit manner. With small focal point on single public presentations, the same wagess and chances are offered to all employees, determined on the footing of corporate understandings. Seniority and procedural understandings are cardinal in this state of affairs.

Goss sees human resource direction and traditional forces direction as “ soft human resources direction ” or humanistic and “ difficult human resource direction ” or instrumental. For Goss, there is small understanding over the exact item of human resource direction as it is positioned on a continuum from humanistic ( where the human dimension is extremely recognized, people are measured above other non-human resources and are managed otherwise, in a mode that recognizes and respects a basic humanity ) at one terminal to instrumental ( where people are treated as tantamount to any other sort of resource and to be managed harmonizing to rules of net income maximization and cost minimisation ) at the other ( Goss 1994 ) .

The acknowledgment of fluctuation between traditional forces direction and human resource direction has non resolve many of the tensenesss apparent in the human resource direction arguments of faculty members and practicians. Many of these remain goaded by statements over how human resource direction is being practiced in organisations ( Goss, 1997 ) . Higgs ( 2002 ) is of the position that although the phrase “ our people are our most of import plus ” has become a cliche , for several old ages, merely a few organisations recognize and pattern such a rule in their day-to-day activities.

For Higgs, it is possibly because, until late, there had non been much grounds as respects the impact of people direction on organisational public presentation. Bilmes ( 2002 ) in Pickford ( Ed ) , ( 2003:37 ) says “ whiles companies pay lip service to the importance of their people, in world they invest in anything elseaˆ¦to enhance public presentation. ” “ Yet the most obvious and unmarked, beginning of strategic advantage is to utilize people better ” . All these positions and more point to the fact that, there is deficiency of lucidity as respects how organisations truly pull off the human resource in the thrust to heighten public presentations despite their acknowledgment of the significance of the construct of people direction.

Employees argue that employers are keeping on to traditional forces direction that ignores their involvement ; which harmonizing to Goss ( 1997 ) , legion organisations claim to hold practiced long before the human resource direction ‘label ‘ became popular. Employers on the other manus, think they are practising human resource direction. The deficiency of lucidity on how human resource direction is so being practiced creates incompatibilities and contradictions on the handling of human resource of NGOs in the Techiman Municipality. The consequences are employee apathy, high labor turnover and organisational inefficiencies ( BANGO 2009 ) . An appraisal of how NGOs are practising human resource direction will therefore lend to deciding the prevalent tensenesss.

1.3.1 Main Research Question
How make NGOs in Techiman Municipality pattern human resource direction?

1.3.2 Research Sub-questions
1. How do NGOs in Techiman Municipality carry out human resourcing?

2. What is the nature of human resource appraisal among NGOs in the Municipality?

3. How is human resource development practiced by NGOs in the Municipality?

4. What is the wagess state of affairs among NGO in the Municipality?

5. Is there committedness and employee engagement in the direction of NGOs in the


6. How do NGOs manage public assistance issues of their employees in the Municipality?

1.4.1 Main Research Objective
The chief aim of this survey is to happen out how NGOs in Techiman Municipality pattern human resource direction.

1.4.2 Research Sub-objectives
a. To happen out how NGOs in the Municipality carry out human resourcing

B. To analyze the nature of human resource appraisal among NGOs in Techiman


c. To research how NGOs in the Municipality pattern human resource development

d. To measure the wagess state of affairs among NGO in the Municipality

e. To detect if there is committedness and employee engagement in the direction of

NGOs in the Municipality

f. To happen out how NGOs handle public assistance issues of their employees in the Municipality.

The research will be conducted among selected NGOs in Techiman Municipality in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. The Techiman Municipality is good known for its commercial and agricultural activities in the part. The Municipality has 22 registered NGOs ( BANGO 2009 ) . The concentration of these organisations in the country is likely due to the fact that the municipality is made of diverse people with diverse demands that require their services.

The operations of these organisations are of much involvement to me and deserving researching into. Since NGOs operate from a similar environment, findings of the state of affairs in organisations in the country will non fall abruptly of being representative of those in the part in peculiar and the state at big.

Human resource is the most common and most valuable plus to every organisation. The manner this plus is managed means a batch to the endurance of every organisation. While faculty members and practicians of human resource direction agree on the being of both traditional forces direction and human resource direction as agencies of pull offing human resource, there is still tenseness over which of the two is truly being practiced by organisations and how? This negatively affects organisational behaviour and public presentation ( Goss, 1997 ) . The survey is hence non merely traveling to measure and give a prescription of which of the two is in pattern but besides to lend towards deciding the prevailing tensenesss and bettering organisational public presentation.

In add-on, it is hoped that my survey will motivate other research workers and trip their involvement to research further on the country, utilizing my survey as the footing. This will take to new findings on the subject, adding to the cognition base of society.

This survey will besides assist place efficient ways of pull offing human resource for organisational growing and success.

2.1.0 Introduction
Literature reappraisal, harmonizing to Brown ( 1996 ) , guides the research worker and exposes him/her to assorted plants on his or her subject of research. Given the significance of human resource direction issues in organisational set up, there have been a good figure of Hagiographas and, for that affair, parts doing up a batch of bing literature in the country for reappraisal. In this subdivision, literature will be reviewed to reflect these constructs and theories. Gaps in these will be identified, examined and amended. An illustration of the reappraisal is as done below

2.2.0 Human Resourcing
“ Human resourcing can be regarded as that country of human resource direction that is concerned with the quantitative and qualitative planning of work and organisation ” . For Goss, “ This is a diverse country that ranges from traditional work force planning geared towards the accomplishment of equilibrium, to organisational design and development ” , ( Goss 1997: 19 ) . Here manpower planning and public presentation direction are more of quantitative attack to human resourcing whilst the issue of flexible working pattern as an illustration of organisational design is more of qualitative in nature. Manpower planning
Manpower planning, harmonizing to Bennison ( 1984 ) , as developed in the 1960s, was intended to pull off the head-count of an organisation in line with predicted tendencies in public presentation by patterning in-flows and out-flows of labor, taking into history possible alterations in labour conditions.

Bing mathematically inclined in its attack, manpower planning had the advantage of using mathematical/scientific decision-making techniques in the procedure with the purpose to guaranting preciseness ; the truth nevertheless is that it is least operable and largely merely accessible to the numerate and therefore encourages a conservative and noncritical credence of bing classs of work force and calling construction ( Pearson, 1991 )

I therefore will hold with Bennison ( 1984 ) that the impression that it is possible to gauge the hereafter work force needs with the preciseness necessary to fit policies of supply is rather unsound. For him, demand is peculiarly susceptible to alterations in the outside universe.

This is really true because events like wars, trade good monetary values and foreign exchange rates amongst others pose jobs in pull offing economic systems which in bend affect the growing rates of organisations and hence their work force demands predicted in progress of clip utilizing mathematical/scientific rules.

This is what makes the pandemonium theory of delimited instability in strategic direction of work force of import ; which requires non tilting on past experiences as an infallible usher into the hereafter and accepting that the hereafter is inherently unknowable, and that it can non be planned on conventional prediction sense. Evan and Doz ( 1989 ) were hence non incorrect when they observed that life in uncertainness agency directors have to develop new cognitive accomplishments ; the sensitiveness of ‘duality ‘ , that is equilibrating of opposing force per unit areas such as local and planetary and competitory and concerted events. Performance direction.
3.1.0 Introduction
This chapter examines the attack to informations assemblage in the research procedure and so is really critical in guaranting the dependability and cogency of findings. It encompasses many countries of importance as examined below.

3.2.0 Research Design
3.2. 1.0 Data aggregation tools
To carry on the research to roll up primary informations, I will utilize studies, semi-structured interviews, observations and a instance survey. With the studies, the door to door attack will be used. The studies will give quantitative informations on labor turnover, manpower planning and other signifiers of ‘general ‘ informations. This will besides be appropriate to utilize in covering with the big population that will be involved, to comparatively save clip.

The semi-structured interviews will be used in researching specific informations such as positions and sentiments on issues of public assistance and wagess. It will besides be of aid in bring forthing in-depth and specific qualitative information on the job to complement findings generated from the studies. Since some of the human resource direction patterns such as committedness and employee engagement and public assistance can be observed, I will make observation of some of these patterns to consolidate and formalize findings yielded by the studies and interviews. In fact, this will give first manus information on the job. I can non measure human resource direction among all NGOs given the fact that they are many. Choosing some NGOs for a instance survey is hence appropriate to make.

Other beginnings of informations for the survey will include secondary beginnings such as articles and newspaper publications.

3.3.0 Sampling Detailss Sampling techniques
In the choice of trying units ( respondents ) for the studies, I will fall back to the usage of the simple random trying technique to give all units equal opportunities of being selected to guarantee cosmopolitan representativeness and to enable me minimise to biases every bit much as possible. Since there is a list of the NGOs, I will specifically utilize the lottery or goldfish bowl method of the simple random trying technique to choose the organisations and in each, study the first two employees that I will run into. Of the members of boards of managers and executives of NGO webs, I will besides use the same sampling technique.

For the sampling unit for the interviews, I will utilize the combination of purposive and inadvertent sampling techniques ( choice of respondents by opportunity ) where appropriate ; aiming employees of the NGOs, executives of NGO webs in the part to which the selected NGOs belong, executive managers of the NGOs, members of boards of managers and the Municipal Social Welfare Director. I will participatorily detect human resource direction patterns in the organisations. The issue of instance survey emerges since a choice of some NGOs will be done for the survey. Sampling units
The trying units will include employees, proprietors and boards of managers of NGOs, since they are straight involved in the patterns of the organisations and so will hold first manus information about the state of affairs as prevails in the organisations. Executives of NGO webs in the part to which the selected NGOs belong and the Municipal Director of Social Welfare will besides be contacted for information on the job since they work manus in manus and will hold records of information relevant to the survey. Sampling size appraisal and sampling frame.
A pre-research probe has revealed that none of the NGOs in the country has staff strength of more than six. Given an norm of five staff per organisation, the 10 NGOs to be selected will hold 50 staff with about the same figure of members in their boards of managers. This makes a entire population of 100. Out of the 100, I will try out four units from each organisation made up of one board member, the Executive Director and any other two employees, summing up to 40 units for the studies. There are three NGO webs in the part of the survey country: BANGO, NGOs in Health and Coalition of NGOs in Human Rights.

From each web, a member of the executives will be added to the 40 units and that of the Municipal Director of Social Welfare to do a entire sampling size of 44 for the studies. The interviews will be scaled down to five selected NGOs. From these, a member from each board of managers, all executive managers and an employee each with a member from each web will be interviewed. The Municipal Director of Social Welfare will besides be interviewed. In all 19 units will be subjected to the interview procedure. The sampling frame therefore becomes 63 units of all respondents to the survey.

3.4.0 Data Analysis and Presentation.
My analysis of informations will get down with the informations aggregation in the signifier of contemplations. Upon completing the aggregation, I will reexamine studies, interview transcripts and field notebooks. I will make a sum-up of the informations and code open-ended inquiries to enable me form them into subjects in line with the aims set. This will be done in the instance of qualitative informations. In the instance of quantitative informations from studies, I will form them into tabular arraies, graphs and charts utilizing SPSS. I will besides utilize some steps of cardinal inclination such as the mean, discrepancy, standard divergences and arrested development to analyse relationships and make chi-square analysis to prove for statistical significance to guarantee that findings are different from opportunity. I will so pull peculiar forms, construe them, pull decisions and compose the study

The research will be organized in five chapters to do presentation clear and orderly as outlined below

Chapter one is a general debut into the survey. The job statement, research inquiries and aims, justification of the survey and a brief profile of the survey country will all be captured in this chapter

Chapter two will cover a reappraisal of literature on the survey. It will research bing literary spreads on the subject. Conceptual issues and their operational definitions every bit good as the theoretical bases of the survey will besides be dealt with here.

The research methodological analysis will travel into chapter three. It will clearly bespeak the research design, trying techniques, trying units, trying size and frame, beginnings of secondary informations and the analysis of informations and presentation. It therefore deals with the attacks that will be employed in the aggregation of informations to turn to the job.

Chapter four will stand for findings of the research activity. Data collected will be analyzed and organized in this chapter with treatments in response to the research inquiries. Secondary information will besides be examined in line with findings.

Chapter five will sum up the chief findings of the research and draw decisions. Here excessively, the research job, inquiries and aims will be revisited.

This subdivision examines the confines within which this survey is to be conducted. It besides tries to set cardinal constructs in the survey in position. It looks at some constructs used in this survey most of which are adopted from Goss ( 1997 ) .

The survey will seek to measure the human resource direction state of affairs of NGOs, utilizing the undermentioned basic parametric quantities: human resourcing, human resource appraisal, human resource development, wagess, committedness and employee engagement and public assistance

Human Resourcing: this merely has to make with be aftering the strength of human resource to fit organisational demand of it. It encompasses manpower planning that use mathematical tools to foretell organisational demand of human resource, public presentation direction that examines organisational aims against single public presentation and the allotment of wagess and the acceptance of flexible work patterns to guarantee organisational efficiency ( Goss, 1997 ) .

Human resource appraisal: concerns itself both with the choice and enlisting and in-service assessment of employees in line with organisational aims in a mode that ensures effectiveness and efficiency ( Goss, 1997 ) .

Human resource development: this takes a expression at how organisations develop their human resource through preparation and mentoring: therefore, their investing in the development of employees ( Goss, 1997 ) .

Wagess: this refers to the wage packages available to employees in return to their attempt put into the running of an organisation. The signifier this takes, and how relational it is to motive for greater on the occupation public presentation is cardinal ( Goss, 1997 ) .

Committedness and employee engagement: as Goss ( 1997:86 ) put it, “ committedness normally refers to the ability of a work force to continuously execute to its maximal capacity ” . How this is secured is critical in the organisation.

Employee engagement is about the authorization of the work force to enable them to execute efficaciously by exerting greater control over their occupations and the determinations that affect them

Social welfare: public assistance trades with issues that have to make with the wellbeing of employees in an organisation and is cardinal to the growing of the organisation.