An Error Analysis of The Use of Prepositions In TheFirst Year Students of UIN Ar-RaniryPutriNachlisaUINAr-Raniry Banda AcehEmail:[email protected] Abstract Many of Indonesian students facedifficulties and make errors in using English preposition . They oftenencounter difficulties in transleting Indonesian preposition into English. Sobecause of that case, the researcher want to seek the Error use in Englishpreposition. The aim of this study is to describe the ability of the studentson the use of preposition in the first year students of UIN Ar-Raniry. Thisstudy was also intended to give some contributions concerning the factors thatinfluence the grammatical errors on the use of preposition and how to overcomethe errors. This study is descriptive qualitative.
The writer had chosen thefirst year Of English Department Students at UIN Ar-Raniry in the academic yearof 2017/2018 and the participant were 5 students. The factors that influencedthe errors were found out from the result of the test. According to the resultof the study, 1 of 5 students got average achievement, and 2 students got belowaverage achievement and 2 students got insufficient or fail. Then, factors thatinfluenced the errors were they still confuse which preposition is use andsuitable for the sentence. The solution from the writer were the studentsshould understand deeply and study about the function of preposition more andmore and for the teacher or lecturer, they have to give the studentsexplanation and exercise more than before.
Introduction Language is a very important thing ina human life for communication today. Khurriyati (2013) said that, Language isa means to make self-expression, integration, social adaptation, and socialcontrol. It means that language is mean of human effort to carrying out theiractivities although human being process of speak language, unfortunately, ithas not been particularly easy for them to say what it is. Each language hasits own rule.
This is the problem, which often faced by Indonesian students tolearn English, and they often make some errors. For an English teachers, theyshould help them to solve their problem. Karunia (2008) said that there aremany differences between Indonesian and English systems. One of the differencesis structural system, and one of the difficulties in learning English structureis using English preposition. English preposition is different from Indonesianones.
It causes the Indonesian students face difficulties and make errors inusing English preposition. In order to succeed in the process of teaching andlearning English, it is important for English teachers to help the students solvethe problems. They must make an effort to improve English teaching processeasily for their students. In order to be able to decide weather it is error ornot it is needed to understand fully the source of errors.
An error isdifferent from mistake, so it is crucial to differentiate both of them. Mistakesare caused by the learners not putting into practice something they havelearned while errors are caused by the learner trying out something completelynew and getting it wrong (Bartram and Walton,1991). Mistakes, reflectoccasional lapses in performance because the learner is unable to perform whatshe knows. Practically, error analysis can be a very useful device of a foreignlanguage teaching program. Errors provides feedback, they tell the lecturerssomething about the effectiveness of their teaching materials and theirteaching techniques (khurriyati, 2013).
In other words, a mistake is a slip that the learnercan self correct whereas an error is what a learner can not self correct. Fromthose definitions above, the writer can also conclude that a mistake is just aslip that the learner forgets the right form. While, an error is a deviationmade by the learner because he/she does not know the rule and will make itrepetitively. A Preposition is a word placed before a noun or a pronoun to showin what relation the person or thing denoted by it stands in regard tosomething else (Wren & Martin, 1995).Karunia (2008) said that, the learners often makemistakes in the process of foreign language learning. Thus, it is still not abig deal when the learners commit the mistake either in speaking or writingsince they are capable to correct the mistake.
However, learning other languagebecomes difficult since the target language has different system from thenative language. This difference sometimes makes the learners make errorsespecially in applying grammar. This is why analyzing learner’s errors inlearning other language would be interesting instead of mistake analysis. The aims of the studyIn accordance with the problem above, the objectivesor the aims of the study can be stated as follows:1. To find out the cause of thestudents’ errors in using preposition in English Department Students of UINAr-raniry.
2. To find out the solution forthe errors in using preposition in English Department students of UIN Ar-raniry.Research MethodResearch DesignIn this research, the writer conducts the test to collect the datato find a descriptive study about the student’s error of using Prepositions.First, the writer conducts test to the first year students of EnglishDepartment in UIN Ar-raniry.
It has 5 students, the result of the test are useas the primary data of this research. The test will be datacollection. When the data are collected, they are classified based on itserrors.
From those data the writer will do the analysis, and there will be dataanalysis to come to conclusion.Thesubject of the studyPopulationIn this studythe writer take the students of English Department at UIN Ar-raniry in thefirst year in unit 03 as a population. There are consist of 32 students.
SampleThe writer took10 students as her sample, but after the first test the researcher choose 5students from 10 who make fatally Error in using preposition. SamplingIn this research the writer uses purposive sampling. Arikunto(1996) said, Purposive sampling is a technique of sampling based on someconsideration. Some consideration to take the sample that the researcher used areas follow:a. The subject which taken asthe sample in this research should be the English Department Students. Theresearcher chooses this qualification because those students had been taughtabout preposition in the first semester.
b. The writer took 10 studentsin one unit which are taught by one teacher because this factor helps to makesure that the teaching and learning condition are likely similar. Data collecting technique In this research, the writer takes a test aboutPreposition to collect the data. She needs instruments to find the studentserrors in using Preposition.
An instrument plays an important role to collectdata. Suharsimi Arikunto (1996) states that an instrument is a mean, whichplays an important role to collect data in a research. The researcher providetwo test, for the first test is given to 10 students and after that theresearcher choose 5 from those 10 students that make fatally error in usingpreposition and they are given the second test. DataAnalysisTo analyzed the students’ error in usingpreposition, the writer uses qualitative descriptive analysis (non-statisticalqualitative analysis).Thewriter classifies the student’s achievement using factor analysis by the use offive lettes: A, B, C, D, E, which expressed various level of achievement. Inaddition, it was relatively easy to translate from letter grading to percentagegrading (wilmar Tinambunan, 1998). Percentage of correct answer Grade Level of achievement 93–100 percent correct A.
Outstanding Outstanding achievement 85-92 percent correct B. Very good Above average achievement 75-84 percent correct C. Satisfactory Average achievement 60-74 percent correct D.
Very weak Below average achievement Below 60 percent correct E. fail Insufficient achievement Inorder to find out the caused of errors, again the writer also analyze by usingnon-statistical analysis based on the performance data. That the real errorsmade by the students.Fromthe data collection the writer explains that the result of the analysis of allstudents shows that the average of the errors made by students are in usingpreposition “of and in”. The greatest number of errors are in using prepositionof and the smallest number of errors are in using preposition on. Result Fromthe data collection and the analysis of the instrument, the writer willanalysis about how are the achievement of English department students mastery in usingpreposition and the dominant that cause the student’s errors in usingpreposition.
The Mastery of Using Preposition inEnglish department students of UIN Ar-raniry. To know the students mastery of using preposition, the writer usedthe five levels of student’s achievements as follow: Percentage of correct answer Sum of student Grade Level of achievement 93–100 % (in, of, on all correct) – A. Outstanding Outstanding achievement 85-92 % (in, of correct) – B.
Very good Above average achievement 75-84 % (of correct) 1 C. Satisfactory Average achievement 60-74 % (in correct) 2 D. Very week Below average achievement Below 60 % (on correct) 2 E. fail Insufficient achievement resultof the analysis shows that many students still gave the wrong answer. There isno one who answered 100% correctly or get an outstanding achievement.Unfortunatelyalmost a half of the sample get the percentage of correct answer below averageso they are included in the level below average achievement.The Dominant preposition that Cause Thestudent’s Errors of Using itInorder to find out the dominant sources that cause the student’s errors of usingpreposition, the writer presents some dominant errors causes of errors made bythe students.
There are many students who made wrong in answering the test inthe question of using preposition of. Onlyone student that has the correct answer in using preposition of. Two students answer the preposition in correctly. And two students answerpreposition on correctly. The Solution of The Errors Accordingto the data are collected the writer thinks that there were many mistakes thatthe students made in using preposition. It is caused by:1.
Preposition between Indonesia and English is different.2. In this test there are three kinds of preposition that hasdifferent rule and using. 3.
They lack of knowledge about preposition of place. Karunia (2008) said that Prepositionbetween Indonesia and English is different. To cover this problem the studentsshould know that preposition in English could not be used interchangeably. Theyshould be used in their own rule (enclosed space, surface or specific place).
Preposition in Indonesia is just has only one meaning, but preposition inEnglish there are can be two or threemeaning (Helling, 2016). The students are still influenced by theirmother tongue. They do not think about the form, just think about the meaning.For this case the students should understand deeply the different of usingpreposition in English. And also the students should understand deeply aboutthe function of preposition.The students lack of knowledge about preposition.There are many rules in using preposition. To cover it the students shouldstudy about it more and more, and they should gave an attention to master it.
Theteachers should help their students to overcome those problem above. They cangive more explanations and exercises than before in the future learningprocess. Discussion After finishing her research which is entitled “AnError Analysis of The Use of Prepositions in the First Year Students of UINAr-raniry”, the writer can draw some conclusions.
The conclusion are based onthe result of the test about the student’s errors of using preposition asfollows:The achievement of the student’s masteryof using preposition still fail, because there are 4 students that are almostall of the sample did error in using preposition It can be concluded that theteaching learning process of preposition at the first year students of UINAr-raniry should be increased. In this studythe researcher choose only three preposition (in, on, of) from so many othersbecause of some reasons. The reason why I selected only those 3 preposition isbecause many students are confuse which one will they use between those 3. Andalso those 3 preposition seems like same and I think that is very easy forstudent who are understand well those 3 prepositions, so it will make me easyto know how error the students in using prepositions, if they are given thesimple prepositions and they make it error, it’s mean when they are given someothers prepositions which is more difficult for them, I am confuse that theycan do it. As richard (2018) state that There are many occasions where youmight confuse prepositions. For example, sometimes it is difficult to know when you should use in,into, on, or at. This isbecause their meanings are very similar, so you have to look at the context ofthe sentence.
The purpose of this study is toknow how error the students in using preposition and how to solve it. Theteachers should motivate their students in learning English especially in usingpreposition. The teacher must focus on thestudent’s motivation in using preposition by explaining the characteristics ofpreposition. The teachers should give some exercises and examples of Englishsentences especially in using preposition. The teacher should give the way toidentify English especially preposition, so they know how to use English andhow to motivate the students in order to improve their skill in using sentences(khurriyati, 2013). In the teaching learning process,the students must be active and they must ask something about using preposition.
Thestudents must study hard and serious in learning English especially in usingpreposition. The students pay attention to characteristics preposition. Thestudents must try to increase their abilities especially in using preposition.
Inthis study the writer takes one previousstudies. The first study that had been done by Saliha CHELLI entitled “Interlingual or IntralingualErrors in the Use of Prepositions and Articles The case of first-year students of English at Biskra University”.In her study, she described the kind of Error that happen in using preposition,the dominant of errors made by the students in using english preposition andthe efforts to evercome the errors.
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