Albert in collaboration of The George Washington University (GW)

Albert (2013) in his
article provides data of the psychographics, demographics and behavior patterns
of adventure travelers. The author provides a breakdown of the market size of
adventurists including regional travel percentages trip spending. An analysis
of pre and post trip behaviors of adventure tourists and role of behaviors for
marketers are analyzed. The study is conducted in collaboration of The George
Washington University (GW) and the Adventure Travel Trade Association (ATTA).

The findings reveal that the adventure tourism market has grown rapidly compared
to the last study in 2009. A development in new source markets for
international destinations is identified. The growth of adventure market has effects
on both the destinations and travel businesses. Tourists from new markets like
South Korea and China are showing an interest in this special tourism.

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Mason, Gos , & Moretti (2016) aims to
examine how various factors of motivation affect behavioral intentions. They
try to provide a better understanding of behavioral patterns and the
differences between the sets of individual’s perception of risk. Within
adventure tourism activities range from soft to hard adventure. Within these the
levels of risks, skill required increase from a minimum to a maximum point. This
area is highly subjective; classification of adventure tourism is similar with
other types of nature-based tourism. Surveys from visitors were conducted on a
sample of hard adventure tourists at the Friuli Dolomiti Alps Natural
Park.  The analysis of revolved around
four motivational dimensions: risk, nature contemplation and socialization. The
method followed was regression and ANOVA analysis. The analysis of motivational
factors indicates the above-mentioned dimensional elements. The stepwise
regression results show that nature is the only motivational factor that
affects behavioral intention of adventurists.






Singh & Singh (2014) aims to
collect data relating to the socio – economic features of the Adventure
tourists in states of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand and to identify their
exposure to the destination. The data was collected from adventure tourists in
Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh, with the help of structured questionnaires along
with personal interview method. The data were analyzed through simple
statistical tools like frequency, average and percentages and advanced
techniques like Z-test, and Chi-Square test. The author states according to the
socio economic characteristics, younger community is more interested in this
form of tourism and majority of them are men. The tourists received information
about the two states by friends and relatives. Most indulged activities were
trekking, scuba diving and rafting. Thus they require greater safety and
security measures to be introduced.

Villalobos, Becerra, &
Gomez (2012) aims to understand the demand for adventure activities
and identify the social, demographic factors, motivators and travel conditions
that influences number of tourism activities taken by tourists. It try to
classify the variables according to positive or negative impact on the average
number of activities demanded ?by international tourists. Assistance is
provided with public and private supply and demand for adventure tourism in
Costa Rica region is identified. PPF is used to determine the demand according
to the perceived number of adventure tourism activities that the international
tourists in Costa Rica would have undertaken. It is based on the Poisson
Distribution (PD) distribution. The study draws parallels from surveys during
the first quarters of 2007 and 2010 to a sample of tourists. The findings identify
a rise in demand for hiking whereas a fall in observing flora and fauna. The
visit to volcano erupted areas was the second most demanded. Based on social
factors, there is a fall in demand of adventure activities by women. Traveling
with friends and partners is the highest.





Lala & Bhat (2008) The
author aims to establish the current scenario of adventure tourism and
considerations for the future of adventure activities in Kashmir. Efforts are
made to take the current adventure tourism products worldwide. The study
recommends measures in tune to with the future demand so as to widen the base
of tourist arrivals on one hand and sustain the growth on the other side. The
paper is based on secondary data. The required data for analysis has been
collected from various government organizations. The figures are analyzed in
order to examine the future of adventure tourism. Kashmir as an adventure destination
is receiving fewer number of international tourists. Adventure tourism has
certain weakness in this region like infrastructure and lack of promotion of
tourism as a element for local development and visitor satisfaction.

 Buckley (2000) try’s to identify one sector of
the tourism industry, namely which depends on outdoor natural environments as a
main motivator or setting for adventure activities. The paper is based on
secondary data. The trends are supported by both the industry and human
behavior. This attempts to address trends that are new to be considered
interesting and sufficiently identified easily. This is largely driven from
within the industry comprising of its clients, and public agencies in its
association.  The author states that the
Nature, eco- and adventure aspect are the main product of this sector. The
products of NEAT do not compulsorily incorporate best practices for external
environment. The size of the economy plays an important role in tourism
industry including regional, national and public land management players.

Framework for adventure tourism demands standards and accreditation for
performance identification.