Air suspended particulate matter (SPM). Suspended particulate matter are

 

            Air
pollution occurs when harmful substances are introduced into Earth’s
atmosphere. Air pollution refers to the contamination of the air, regardless of
indoors or outdoors. A physical, biological, or chemical alteration to the air
in the atmosphere can be termed as pollution. Pakistan is the most polluted country
in the world by particulate matter concentration. Air pollution is an emerging environmental
issue in the big cities of Pakistan. Dust and smoke particles in Pakistan are
generally twice the world average and five times higher than the developed
world. Though some of the pollution comes from natural sources, most is the
result of human activities.

One of the most serious issues
relating to air pollution in Pakistan is the presence of excessive suspended
particulate matter (SPM). Suspended particulate matter are finely divided
solids or liquids that may be dispersed through the air from combustion
processes, industrial activities, or natural sources. Particulate matter has
many causes, these causes can be both natural and man-made. Such as, brick
kilns, dust storms, construction, and burning of solid waste. A huge factor
producing particulate matter is urbanization. Urbanization refers to the population shift from
rural to urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to the change. Due
to people migrating to cities, trees are cut down on a large scale without any
adequate efforts to plant new ones. This leads to deforestation, which also
helps cause a rise in atmospheric pollution levels; this is done to make way
for factories. Factories need an energy source to power their production
processes. In Pakistan’s case, this energy source is fossil fuel burning, particularly
coal. Factories not only increase the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere,
but they also emit substances that do not directly contribute to poor air
quality, but combine with other elements to create air pollutants. Due to
urbanization in Pakistan, industry around the suburbs of major cities has
increased significantly. This includes brick manufacturing and methane produced
by the decomposition of municipal and industrial waste.

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            Another source that greatly
contributes in increasing air pollution in Pakistan, is transportation. Air polluting
transportation methods can be cars, trucks, motorbikes, airplanes, and ships. Carbon
Dioxide emissions have increased proportionally with a growth of transportation
usage. Air pollution costs are probably the most extensive of all environmental
externalities of transportation, mainly because the atmosphere enables a fast
and widespread diffusion of pollutants. As South Asia’s most urbanized country,
Pakistan contends with increasing challenges from the increase in motor
vehicles in cities. According to a report from the Punjab environmental protection
department (EPD), more than eleven million cars appeared on the roads in
Pakistan’s most populous province. Additional emissions are associated with the
refining and the distribution of vehicle fuel. Major pollutants from motor
vehicles are particulate matter, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and hazardous
air pollutants (toxics). Toxics have been mainly linked to birth defects, cancer,
and other serious illnesses that Pakistan suffers a lot from.

            Agricultural activities in Pakistan are
also known to cause air pollution. Activities that are directly related to the
production or processing of crops, dairy products, poultry, or livestock for
initial commercial sale or as a principal means of personal subsidence can be
referred to as agricultural activities. Ammonia is a very common by product
from agriculture related activities and is one of the most hazardous gases in
the atmosphere. Use of insecticides, pesticides, and fertilizers in
agricultural activities has grown quite a lot; thus, emitting harmful
substances into the air. Contaminated water used for irrigation is one further
source of pollution. While a lot of the water used is clean, other sources are
polluted with organic compounds and heavy metals. This happens due to the
disposal of industrial and agricultural waste in local bodies of water.

            Air pollution in Pakistan is a
serious matter, most of it is due to urbanization. urbanization is what leads
to industrialization, increased means of transport, and greater produce of
agriculture. Which therefore leads to an increase in the amount of air
polluting substances emitted.