AfterMexican immigrants and Indian immigrants, those Chinese immigrants are thethird-largest born in United States’ foreign group in the United States.Chinese immigrants to the United States have two periods, one is in themid-nineteenth century and another is in the late 1970s to the present(JieZong, Jeanne Batalova, 2017). Chinahas a long history of immigrating to the United States and has a lot to do withthe history of China’s development, immigration legislation and policies, and theUnited States foreign relations. After United States cancelled Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments in 1965, moreand more Chinese immigrant to U.S and the number of Chinese immigrants haveincreased until now(Jie Zong, Jeanne Batalova, 2017).
Chinese immigrants go to the United States for a betterlife and more opportunities. When the Chinese first arrived in the UnitedStates for finding jobs in the mid-19th century and escaped the harshconditions of their own country, the Chinese found jobs and settled in Chinatown.Nowadays, many immigrants enter the country for better education andemployment. Immigrants have made great strides in achieving equality betweenmen and women in United States compare with China’s society. In this paper, it aims to point out theissues that Chinese-born in China immigrants in the United States and also Iwant to point out that Chinese immigrants have new challenges in a newphenomenon. For Chinese immigrants have many different definition,some people think Chinese immigrants are “Chinese Americans” who are Chineserace, but born in United States, second definition is Chinese immigrants are Chineseborn in China and their parents are not America and they immigrant to UnitedStates. The third definition is a Chinese immigrant was living in China andjust moves to United States for few years ago. For each of these three groups, eachgroup of these three groups is sub-group of the previous population.
Bydefinition that we mentioned before, a Chinese immigrant can be a non-citizen,a United States citizen or a permanent resident of United States. Using age and gender, occupation and income,and education to discover how Chinese immigrants face new issues and new challengesin their life. Those issues and challenges that appear I believe it connectwith current United States policy toward China, and otherwise, current Chinesepolicy toward United States.Gender and age A quarter of the Chinese in the United States live overseas.
In 2016,there were 2.6 million Chinese immigrants in the United States, accounting forabout 5% of the total number of births in the country (Jie Zong, JeanneBatalova, 2017). To be 16 years the median time for Chinese immigrants in theUnited States, which means that most Chinese immigrants arrived after themid-1990s. In 2016, the average age of immigrants in Mainland China was thesame as that of the entire foreign-born population (44 years), higher thanthose born in the United States (36 years) and lower than those born in HongKong (52 years) (Jie Zong, Jeanne Batalova, 2017). Meanwhile, it has 54%Chinese immigrants are females, as the gender and age group pyramid shows,there are more women Chinese immigrants in the United States than male Chineseimmigrants (Aaron Terrazas, Jeanne Batalova, 2010). From my interviews about 10people, who are Chinese immigrants, show the data about 40% is aged below 30years old, 60% is aged among 36 to 55 years old. Also 70% is female Chineseimmigrants that from my interviewees, 30% is male Chinese immigrants. Afterthose interview, they, who are age among 36 to 55, point out that they face anissue and challenges about languages and gender imbalance because elder peoplecan not easier to fit a new living circumstances especially they are in atotally new circumstance.
Aged below 30 years old has more strong adaptabilitythan elder people on the basis of 40% Chinese immigrants from my interviewees,they mentions that they are more easier to learn English and make friends withAmericans. Educational Attainments Compared with the total population born inforeign countries and the United States, Chinese immigrants are much moreeducated. In 2016, about half (over 25) of Chinese adults had at least abachelor’s degree, significantly higher than the overall immigrant populationand those born in the United States (30% and 32%) (Jie Zong, Jeanne Batalova,2017). The high education is related to the specific channels for Chineseimmigrants to enter the United States. Many Chinese immigrants did not come tothe United States as international H-1B highly skilled temporary workers (needa bachelor’s degree) after 1965, and then apply for permanent residence in theUnited States.
(Jie Zong, Jeanne Batalova, 2017). In the 2015 to 2016 schoolyear, it nearly 329,000 Chinese student entered higher education institutionsin the United States. In the 1 million foreign students studying in the UnitedStates, Chinese students are 1/3. About 43% of Chinese students enrolled inscience, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) areas (Jie Zong, JeanneBatalova, 2017). Based on these data, a new issue and challenge comes out, manyhigh educational Chinese student still hard to apply for H1B (a non-immigrantsvisa) because of supply exceeds demand. It means after Chinese students graduatefrom high education institutions, many people competition for one position andit makes get H1B less compare with other foreign students who apply H1B for workingvisa. According to my interviewees, there are 3 college students concern about graduateto find a job and apply H1B. 6 people from my interviewees said nowadays isvery hard to get H1B and also for green card even you have PHD degreebackground, they might be go back to China to find opportunities.
Occupation, Income and Poverty Chinese immigrants are highly representedin the areas of business administration, finance, information technology, otherscience and engineering, education and training, media and entertainment, andmedical occupations. Male Chineseimmigrants are more likely to be engaged in other healthcare practitioners andservice jobs that may be engaged in selling occupations. Women Chineseimmigrants engaged in social services and laws, other health care workers,administrative support for occupations less likely (Terrazas and Batalova 2008).Compare with other occupation, those high technological and business or STEMjobs have more income. The average income of households headed by immigrantsfrom Mainland China is $ 56,000 while the total number of immigrants andlocally born domestic helpers is $ 54,000 and $ 58,000 (Jie Zong, JeanneBatalova, 2017). After Chinese immigrants increase, they face a new issue whichis inequality in labor market.
According to my interviewees, there are 9 peoplehave jobs and they mentions that when they have job’s interview, someinterviewer will ask their identity and language fluency. 40% of myinterviewees said that they get reject just because their English has strongChinese accent and also they are green card not United States citizen. 30% ofmy interviewees said they are failure some interviews because those companiesprefer to choose local American to them. Even as Chinese immigrants make up a larger number share the U.
S.population, but they still face obvious challenges. First, language and culturalbarriers and also political parties tend to ignore Chinese and Asian immigrantsand make it difficult for them to reach them.
Another worry for Chinese immigrantsis the stereotypical minority stereotypes that most Asian immigrants haverealized the American dream. In fact, Asian immigrants include many Asiangroups with very different needs and divergences. They cannot exempt some ofthe poverty or unemployment problems facing all the groups in the UnitedStates. As populations grow, politicians, legislators and the general publichave a better understanding of these communities and people needs. Bypermanently resolving the parliamentary reform of the current immigrationsystem, it will help Chinese immigrant communities to achieve economic success,unite their families and further integrate into American society.