AbstractMalwa plateau is flat highland in central India, formed from slowly eruption of basaltic lava from cracks and fissure during cretaceous period.
It is a highly fertile agriculture land due to presence of black cotton soil, it is ideal for the cultivation of cotton. The aim of present study was to identify and study the reasons which are responsible for sudden water table depletion resulting in water scarcity after the month of December and is to give suggestions and provide solution to the problem using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The study area is situated in tehsil Bagli district Dewas, Madhya Pradesh, and is part of Malwa plateau.
For the present study Cartosat V1 DEM and Resourcesat 1 LISS-III multispectral data from Indian satellites used. Data analysis was done using Arc GIS 10.3 and ENVI 4.
2 software. LISS-III was used for preparation of Landuse and Landcover map. DEM data was used for various hydrological, Geomorphological and surface parameters such as watershed, basin, streams, slope map, aspect map, contour map, hill shade map etc. were derived to find out the problem.
After the detailed interpretation of above maps and data along with field observations reasons responsible for the water crisis in the region were identified. There after analysis and interpretation of all data we gave suggestion for develop watershed management plan in south eastern part of study area for facing and solving the present problem.Keywords-Water scarcity, Cartosat V1, LISS-III, Hydrology, WatershedIntroduction Water is a vital material for the existence of human beings, not only of drinking but also in other usages and requirements of human beings 1. Water scarcity involves water stress, water shortage or deficits, and water crisis. This may be due to both natural and human factors. But, many reports suggest that the scarcity is more due to the human factor than anything – such as industrialization, irrigation, domestic use, etc. 2. Indian agriculture accounts for 90% water use due to fast track ground water depletion and poor irrigation systems 3.
Irrigated agriculture has been fundamental to economic development, but unfortunately caused groundwater depletion. Due to water pollution in rivers, India draws 80% of its irrigation water from groundwater 4. The most important use of water in agriculture is for irrigation, which is a key component to produce enough food. Irrigation takes up to 90% of water withdrawn in some developing countries 5. During the last three decades, there has been an explosive growth of private tube-wells in farms because of a lack of reliable surface irrigation.
The problem is compounded by Indian law which extends exclusive rights to landowners over groundwater. These factors, along with free electricity for pumping, have contributed to an increase in groundwater use from 58% in 2004 to 62% in 2011. There are no indications that this rate is leveling off 6. Remote Sensing and GIS technologies are well-established tools and are routinely used in applied hydrology, forestry, land use dynamics analyses, etc. Abilities of remote sensing technology in hydrology are to measure spatial, spectral, and temporal information and provide data on the state of the earth’s surface.
It provides observation of changes in hydrological states, which vary over both time and space that can be used to monitor hydrological conditions and changes 7. Study Area The Study area bounded between 22°36’49.85″ to 22°43’54.14″ North Latitude and 76°20’33.24″ to 76°28’25.45″ East longitude, covering an area of 175 Km2. The study area lies in the Survey of India topographical sheets 55B/5, 55K/6, 55B/9 and 55B/10 on 1:50,000 scale.
Administratively the study area falls in tehsil Bagli, district Dewas, Madhya Pradesh state of India (Figure-1). Geographically the study area is part of Malwa Platue, characerised by gentle slope in North and Northern west part towards North, whereas Southern east part is characterized by hilly denudational terrain with steep slope toward South. The highest elevation point 583 msl located in Eastern part and lowest elevation point 301 msl located in South eastern part of the area. Kalisindh is major river located in western part of the study area, flows in northern direction. River khari in southern part of the area flows toward south east it is tributary of Narmada River. Few rivulets and tributaries are also flowing in eastern part of the area having Ephemeral type of flow. Geologically, the area under investigation is a part of Deccan trap of Cretaceous age, having various basic basaltic flows of volcanic origin with fine grained texture and hard and compact in nature.
Spheroidal weathering and columnar joints are generally found. Total 28 horizontally disposed basaltic lava flows with an average thickness of 15 to 20 m occur in vertical column of 590 m between 170 m and 760 m above msl. The flows have been classified into five formations out of four exist in study area they are Kalisindh formation, Kankariya Pirukheri formation, Indore Formation and Bargonda Formation. They shows characteristics generally of Aa type with a few pahoehoe types. The flows are fine to coarse grained, non-porphyritic to highly porphyratic, moderately vesicular/amygdular and fairly uniform in lithological and mineral composition.
The rocks area tholelitic in composition and essentially composed of plagloclase, clinopyroxine, iron ore and glass. Plagioclase and to a small extent clinopyroxine occur as phenocrysts and also in groundmass 8. The area is characterized by tropical climatic condition as winter is cold and summer is hot. The rainy season starts from June and ends in September with annual rainfall is about 1083 mm. The normal mean annual temperature of the area is around 25°C. The daily mean minimum temperature is about 5.1°C.
Sometimes in the winter, the individual day temperature comes down to as low as 1°C. The temperature starts rising from the beginning of February, reaching maximum in the month of May to 47°C. Wheat and gram are important cash crop of Rabi season while soybeans and Corn are major crops of Kharif season.
Figure:1 Location map of study areaData and Software Used A combination of satellite remote sensing data from Indian Satellite, Cartosat Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from Cartosat V1 and LISS-III Multispectral data from Resource sat 1 has been used, which is available for download from ISRO Bhuvan Geoportal. Cartosat 1 was launched in 2005, It is India’s first satellite which is capable to provide 3d visualization of terrain, Cartosat DEM having 30 meter spatial resolution while LISS-III from Resource sat 1 having 4 multispectral bands with 23.5 meter spatial resolution has been used in the present study. Integrative GIS software’s Arc GIS 10.
3 and ENVI 4.7 were used. Various hydrological and surface parameters studied and derived using Arc GIS 10.3 software and ENVI 4.7 has been used for preparation of Land use/ Land cover classification map of study area. Methodology To achieve goal of present study, satellite data from different satellite were studied and interpreted. The methodology is summerised in the following steps: 1.
Satellite data, Cartosat DEM Version V1 and LISS-III multispectral data were downloaded from ISRO Bhuvan Geoportal.2. Rectification and correction of satellite data was done as per geographical location of study area. As the study area falls in UTM Zone 43N so we projected satellite data accordingly.3. Spatial Subset of satellite data was done according to extension of study area using Arc GIS 10.3 Software.4.
Unsupervised Classification was performed on LISS-III data set using ENVI 4.2 software for preparation of land use land cover map. 5. Using Hydrology and surface tool of Arc Map Surface and Hydrological parameters such as Contour, Aspect, Slope Map, watershed map, basin, streams were derived to study the problem. Result and Discursion Land use is defined as man’s activities on land. Landcover refers to natural vegetation, water bodies, rock/soil and artificial cover resulting in land transformations (Manual of Land Use/land cover mapping, NRSA 1989) 9. The landuse and landcover map of the study area show that about 54.
15% area is under agriculture land existing in North West and South west, about 44.47% area falls under the forest cover forest and mainly situated in South Eastern and south western part, about 1.08% area fall under settlement and only 0.3 % area is covered by surface water bodies which are existing in South and Southeastern part of study area.
There are no surface water bodies existing in north western and middle part of the study area. Percentage of water bodies is very less in comparison to the areas of the other classes and it is the matter of concern /preoccupation. DEM of the study area clearly shows that in southern area there are denudational hills while the northern part is showing gentle slopes towards NW. Slope map prepared from DEM shows that the slope ranges from 0-39 degrees. The highest elevation in in the eastern part and lowest elevation point in in south eastern part of the area (Fig4). Streams patterns are dendritic, showing same type of lithology and rock type, river Kalisindh and its tributaries flows towards north and north east.
Some tributary of Narmada river flows in south and south eastern part of study area towards south east. Figure: 2 Landuse/landcover Map Figure:3 Digital Elevation Model Figure:4 Contour Map Figure: 5. Slope Map Figure5: Aspect Map Figure 6: Hill shade map Figure 7: Major water basin/divide with stream networkDiscussionAt present the study area is facing acute water crises during summer season. Because of all, Study area is facing water crises, after the month of January or one irrigation in rabi crop, water table suddenly goes down and in summer season few boreholes remain available for drinking water supply.
People have to carry water for 2-5 km away from home during summer. Study could reveal the following reasons for water crises: 1. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people of study area, it constitutes the main income source for the population, the area is having Black cotton soil, which is more fertile, because of that the maximum part of the flat areas (approximately 90%) are being used for agriculture. During last decade demand of food increased with the growth of population for food security of the nation. So that the development and invention happened in the field of Agriculture and about 80% of ground water used in irrigation by submersible pumps from underground water sources such as tube well, dug well etc. 2. The average annual rainfall is about 1083 mm, it is sufficient for fulfillment of water requirement of the area but the area under investigation is situated near water divide of Narmada and Kalisindh River (Figure-2).
Hence approximate 70% of water flows out from area as surface runoff during rainy season, only 30% water store in form of ground water.3. Hydrologically basalt rock is aquitard in nature when it is hard and compact in form. Occurrence of water in basalt rock is limited, only water found in creaks, Joints, flow contact, weak and weathered zone. They developed secondary porosity in Basalt rock.
4. Due to use of Tractors, harvester and heavy machinery in agriculture land, the soft soil got compacted. Due to compaction of soil water absorbing capacity and soil porosity has decreased.5.
There is no major water holding structure present in study area, river and stream are in their initial stage and are of ephemeral type of flow.6. The area under water crisis having gentle slope towards north or flat terrain, so this is not suitable for construction of dam. Small ponds can be constructed in study area by educating the farmers, because small farmer don’t want to lose their valuable agricultural land for the construction of ponds. Farmers those have more land, should be encouraged to construct ponds in their land.
7. There is no appropriate irrigation pattern in study area, farmer do hurry in irrigation after kharif crops, they irrigate present rabi crop once and thereafter again irrigate the same crop, there is no time interval between first and second irrigation due to fear of water stress. Conclusion and Recommendation After all it is concluded that the remote sensing and GIS technique is best tool for study and analysis the same problem and it’s also give ideas and clues for solving the problem.
After the interpretation and analysis of data we can suggest watershed development plan in south and south eastern part of study area, because this area is having favorable condition for develop watershed, providing suitable valley with no agriculture land. Further there will be no need to migrate population so we can construct dam for storing and harvesting more water. Small ponds and bunds can be developed in north and north eastern part of study area after agreement of farmers. Farmers of study area should develop and use micro-irrigation techniques such as drip and sprinkler irrigation. The advantages of this research in the future are to recharge & enhance ground water condition, to increase surface water budget and also to increase in production of agriculture products and pastures.