ABSTRACTIntroduction: In the summertime, human skin has a potential

ABSTRACTIntroduction: In the summertime, human skin has a potential for experiencing skin exposure to sunlight radiation everyday. This exposure may lead to premature skin aging due to UV-A contained in sunlight. Through research, cosmetic with rich source of MAA (Mycosporine-like Amino Acids) is a good tool to delay skin aging because MAA can absorb UV-A from getting inside our skin (dermis). This water-soluble substance usually found in marine organism, such as algae. Methods: The study was done in Central Europe within everyday situations. The parameter for skin aging would be skin elasticity, roughness, and the lipid peroxidation in the skin. The test for lipid peroxidation measured after 28 days, whilst others measured after 2 weeks and 4 weeks. Other subjects that used were synthetic filter (contained 1% UV-A filter and 4% UV-B filter) and cream without actives as control. Liposome was used to encapsulated MAA.Results: Through the research conducted, encapsulated MAA reduced skin lipid peroxidation by 37%, increase the smoothness and firmness of the skin by 10% and 12% after 2 weeks and 4 weeks  respectively. Compared with synthetic filter, only 35% reduction lipid skin peroxidation  and cream control  10% reduction lipid skin peroxidation, it was cleared encapsulated MAA better than the others for reducing lipid peroxidation. Likewise, synthetic filter 6.5%  and 6.1% increasing skin firmness and smoothness respectively, whilst cream control about 2.2% and 1.6%. This result indicate MAA is the best solution compared with cream control and synthetic filter against premature skin aging. Conclusion: The result conclude that MAA has a better ability against skin aging than synthetic fiber and cream control. However, Further research and study need to be conducted for further optimization of MAA in skin care world.Keywords: Mycosporine-like Amino Acid, UV-A, premature skin aging, Porphyra umbilicalis, lipid peroxidationINTRODUCTIONDuring summer, human skin has higher exposure to the sun. The sun radiates different types of electromagnetic waves, including ultraviolet (UV) rays that can affect human skin. Based on the wavelength, there are three types of UV rays: UV-A, has the longest wavelengths (315–400 nm) but has the least energy, UV-C has the shortest wavelengths (100–280 nm) but highest energy, and UV-B falling in between (320-400 nm). Each component of UV can affect human body differently. UV-B radiation can cause sunburn on human skin due to lack of melanin on the upper dermis, whilst UV-A radiation can penetrate deeper part of the dermis. Unlike UV-B, UV-A causes immediate tanning and premature skin aging (D’Orazio, Jarrett, Amaro-Ortiz, & Scott, 2013; Government of Canada, 2012).Due to global warming, there is an increase of UV-light radiation as a result of depletion in ozone layer (Slaper, Velders, Daniel, de Gruijl, & van der Leun, 1996). Although UV-C light cannot reach the earth due to absorption of atmospheric ozone and oxygen gas (Shamim I. Ahmad, 2016), UV-A and UV-B are causing problems in human skin, varying from sunburn to skin cancer. One of the problem is premature skin aging, which is induced by UV-A radiation. Recent studies showed, many marine invertebrates have a substance called Mycosporine-like Amino Acid (MAA). This substance, found in Rhodophyta (red algae), provides protection for organisms against UV light radiation by absorbing the UV-A (Schmid, Cornelia, & Fred, 2004).Mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) is a water soluble molecules and secondary metabolites that can absorb UV light radiation with absorbance between 310 and 360 nm. MAAs can be found in variety of microorganisms, whether invertebrate and vertebrate that are exposed to high intensity of sunlight. Microorganisms are included cyanobacteria, fungi, yeast, and other marine organism such as coral and algae. Marine organisms that lived in intertidal and epipelagic zones have the highest level exposure of UV light radiation. These organisms have MAA as a defense mechanism against sunlight radiation, antioxidants and repair system for their DNA due to radiation. Through MAA abilities in nature, it has a huge potential for anti skin-aging solution for mankind. MAA itself has a wide broad range of absorbance varieties, though from studies, broad range of UV absorption is center at 320 nm. Studies showed, the red algae, Porphyra umbilicalis produce MAA porphyra-334 which was analysed by HPLC method (Schmid, Cornelia, & Fred, 2004). Other organism that contain this MAA is shinorine, which ratio compared with  Porphyra umbilicalis 1 : 2, the total concentration of MAA was 1.4% of each dry mass.    METHODPreparation of the creamsMAA extract was prepared from extraction of dried Porphyra umbilicalis in water and then went through ultrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography. The encapsulation of the extract with liposome was by mixing with lecithin by high pressure homogenization.The test product that was used in the study contained 5% MAA extract, with the final MAA concentration of 0.005%. The cream with liposomal MAAs was compared to a cream with synthetic filter, which was a cream with 4% ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate and 1% butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane. The control was cream without actives.Human studyThe study was conducted by applying the test products twice daily on defined sites on the inner side of the forearm of 20 women in the age range 36 – 54 for 28 days. The test areas were irradiated two times per week with UV-A of 10 J/cm2. Parameters of skin aging such as the skin firmness, smoothness and hydration were measured after 2 weeks and 4 weeks. Formation of lipid peroxidation were measured after 28 days.AnalysisThe firmness of the skin was measured by a Cutometer SEM 575, the smoothness by the digital micromirror device ‘PRIMOS’ (GFMesstechnik GmbH, Teltow, Germany) and the skin hydration determined by the Corneometer CM 825 PC. Formation of the lipid peroxidation determined by HPLC (Schmid, Cornelia, & Fred, 2004).RESULTThe dosage for UV-A irradiation exposure in this study, was 2 times weekly in 10 J/cm2 .UV-A exposure at non protected skin site, treated with a cream containing 0.005% MAA concentration encapsulated in liposomes. Other correspondent were synthetic filter, which contained 4% ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate and 1% butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane, and a cream without actives served as a control. The study showed the activities of MAA in inhibiting lipid peroxidation after 2 weeks, also improvement in skin smoothness and firmness after 2 weeks and 4 weeks. After 2 weeks, MAA cream reduce lipid peroxidation about 37% compared with synthetic filter with peroxidation reduced 35%. This prove that synthetic filter is as good as MAA in preventing wrinkles formation. However, there are major differences during improvement of skin smoothness and firmness. After 2 weeks and 4 weeks, synthetic filter only increased skin firmness about 1.5% and 6.5% respectively, whilst, MAA increased the firmness 3.9% and 10%. It also happened for skin smoothness. MAA skin improvement are 1.9% and 11.5% respectively, but synthetic filter was only about 2.2% and 6.2% after 2 and 4 weeks. From the test result, it is confirmed that MAA  product is better than synthetic filter (Schmid, Cornelia, & Fred, 2004)..DISCUSSIONWrinkles on our skin is caused by lipid peroxidation, often caused by UV-A radiation. UV-A radiation have wavelength between 315-400 nm. When 0.005% MAA is extracted from Porphyra umbilicalis encapsulated in liposome compared with synthetic filter, the result proves that MAA can accelerate the skin repair process and increase the smoothness and firmness of the skin better than synthetic filter. Porphyra umbilicalis contain Porphyra-334 (P-334) and Shinorine (ratio 2:1) which can absorb UV-A radiation. The maximum wavelength absorption for P-334 is 334 nm that mean the P-334 can inhibit UV up to 334 nm and the extinction coefficient of P-334 is 42,300 M-1cm-1. According to IUPAC, molar attenuation or extinction coefficient affects how strong a compound can absorb light per centimeter at given wavelength. Also in Porphyra umbilicalis, Shinorine has effect in preventing premature aging. Shinorine is an inseparable mixture with P-334, that has maximum absorption at 333-34 nm with an 44,700 M-1cm-1 (Wada, Sakamoto, & Matsugo, 2015).In synthetic filter, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and terephthalylidene dicamphor sulfonic acid can reduce lipid peroxidation that can lead to wrinkles, but not as effective as P-334. Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane has 357 nm maximum wavelength and 40,000 M-1cm-1 molar attenuation coefficient while Terephthalylidene dicamphor sulfonic acid has peak wavelength at 345 nm and  45,000 M-1cm-1. Synthetic filter may have wider wavelength range, however it has greater molar attenuation coefficient which make skin can  absorb more UV-A.Liposomes is a phospholipid bilayer that contains aqueous core and DNA to target the cell we want, in this case, our deep skin cell. Liposomes has been widely used for pharmaceutical drug use as a vehicle because of it anti immune response (don’t  cause any inflammation for instance) and size so small it can go into deeper part of our body ( nano < micro) without much time. Mycosporine like amino-acid is a water-soluble pigment, which in this case, liposomes encapsulated MAA in the aqueous core. For future research suggestion, compound with wider wavelength range and lower molar extinction coefficient can be used as alternative, for example palythenic acid (337 nm;  29,200M-1cm-1) and mycosporine-methylamine:threonine (330 nm; 33,000 M-1cm-1). Also, as other options, coated nanoparticles, pegylated nanoparticles, and nanogels can be used.CONCLUSIONMAA has better ability to protect skin from UV-A radiation than the synthetic filter. It is proven by the increase in the skin smoothness and firmness only with a small dosage of MAA, which is 0.005%.Based on the literature, using MAA encapsulated in liposome for sunscreen is highly recommended because it can reach the inner layer of skin and liposomes can deliver MAA to the cell. But further research is need before MAA can be implemented to cream production. The reaction between MAA and other cream ingredients; The appropriate dosage of MAA for various skin types; etc are needed to find out more. And before commercialize, pre-clinical test must be done to ensure the safety of the product.