AbstractInfluenza is a common virus that affects millions of people around the world yearly. Recently, the virus is becoming a major threat due to the fact that the molecular makeup of influenza changes over time. Because of this, no single vaccine is universally effective for each variation of the influenza virus that a single person is predisposed to. Researchers are currently working to improve the vaccine, but are unable to create a single vaccination that is effective on each variation of the virus. To counter this issue, we propose a device that matches a patient’s DNA to one of several ready-made vaccines that will work best for them. With one blood test, our technology codes a string of nucleotides and matches them to one of the variety of flu shots, which are administered as a shot in the upper arm.Present Technology The influenza vaccination is a vaccine that is recommended to take annually in order to provide immunity to the influenza virus. The flu vaccine can be cell-based, egg-based, or recombinant. Cell based flu vaccines are made in a few steps. First, candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs) are approved to be sent out to manufacturers. Then, CVVs are injected into developed cells. It then takes a few days for the cells to replicate. Then the virus is purified and tested. The egg-based production process uses a series of different steps. Hen’s eggs are injected with CVVs and are incubated for a few days in order for the viruses to replicate. Then, the virus solution is gathered from the eggs. For flu shots, the influenza viruses are inactivated, purified, and tested. For the nasal spray vaccine, the CVVs are weakened. Egg based flu vaccines take the longest to produce because it takes large amounts of chicken eggs to produce the vaccine. Recombinant processing starts by separating a specific protein from a vaccine virus. This protein is then combined with parts of another virus in insect cells so it can replicate. The flu protein is then gathered and purified. The recombinant method is the quickest process because it doesn’t rely on egg or influenza virus supply.All of these processes need to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration before the vaccines are sent out for use.HistoryResearchers discovered that viruses cause the flu in 1933. The first flu vaccine was developed in 1938 by Jonas Salk and Thomas Francis. The vaccine was used to protect the U.S. military forces in World War II from getting the flu. The vaccine became available in the United States to the more general public in 1945. To produce the virus in the influenza vaccine, hen eggs were used. But these vaccines were improved, by making the virus less contaminated by removing egg proteins and reducing how far the vaccine spreads throughout the body. In the 1940’s-1960’s, studies showed that the vaccines of the past were not as clean as modern vaccines. Side effects like fatigue, aching, and fever were often thought to develop because of the impurities in the vaccines. As years went on and more vaccines were developed, an increased risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome was shown. In the days or weeks following a flu vaccine, some people began to develop Guillain-Barré syndrome. Although, over the years the significance of developing this syndrome from the flu vaccine has decreased. In 1968, there was a flu pandemic that killed about a million people around the world. The virus developed from antigenic shift, which is the reassortment of genes to form a new and different type of virus. The pandemic originated in Hong Kong. Although this pandemic killed a much lesser amount of pFuture TechnologyOur technology consists of a device that can quickly and efficiently determine the most effective vaccine for a patient based on their DNA and past medical information. MyVaccine uses a sample of blood to sequence the patient’s DNA and match their information with one of several pre-developed vaccines. Prior to the use of the device, the upcoming flu-season’s most likely variations are studied, and up to thirty different vaccines are developed to fight these variations. These vaccines are supplied in large shipments to doctor’s offices and pharmacies in order to have a constant supply of each variation readily available. The technology is used to determine the most effective vaccine for the patient in question. Using a lancet device, the subject’s finger is pricked and pressed to the top of the device, where a small pad absorbs the blood. This pad is disposable and is changed between each patient for sanitation purposes. Using the blood sample, MyVaccine sequences the given DNA to 10,000 nucleotides, enough to predict the type of influenza that the patient is most predisposed to. This sequence is matched to the most similar of the developed vaccines, and that data is sent by USB or Bluetooth to a connected computer, laptop, or tablet which displays the information. The selected vaccine is then acquired on-site and administered on the patient by the usual means of a shot in the upper arm. The device is then able to self-clean and reset, preparing to absorb and read the DNA nucleotides of the next patient. All patient vaccines and sequences are saved to make this process more efficient from year to year. Breakthroughs For MyVaccine to become a reality, many breakthroughs need to occur. For example, the right material to absorb the blood sample must be developed that will filter out the blood to just give the DNA nucleotides. The material would need to be an easy material to clean in between each subject uses the MyVaccine process. The MyVaccine technology will change the mentality of people using vaccines. There is much controversy over whether or not the flu vaccine actually prevents people from getting the flu, but this technology will change the mentality of people. Since the process is individualized, the vaccines are made just for each person making it more trusting. Right material to absorb the blood sampleCan change the mentality of the people. Instant and cost effective New cost effective design that has been created in the past few years. Only problem is it’s very expensive. Design Process We had many different approaches to this project. Some of the earlier ideas included a single device that would actually prick the patient’s finger, analyze the blood and then print out the results. We quickly realized that this method would be too difficult to sanitize, causing risk for contamination. With our new and improved design we kept the simplicity of the original device with the complexity of a completely sanitary design. Another challenge in this process was how the vaccine would actually help the people that would use it. Each person’s body is vastly different. From blood type to white blood cell count, everything can affect a vaccine and how effective it is. At first, we wanted to have each person have a specialized vaccine, completely unique to them, that would be 100 percent effective. But thinking about the future, that would be an insane amount of money for each person to pay. So we configured a way that can benefit the bankaccount of an average person and the health of the person. Our idea is to formulate 30 different formulas for each batch of the flu. The patient would them get there blood tested with the My vaccine device and then get matched to a vaccine that would closely match there blood type. This would be a better solution than the classic flu shot that is developed year after year. Consequences There could be many positive and negative consequences with the MyVaccine technology. A negative consequences could be that since the process uses sequences from past years and chooses the most similar one to the blood data, someone’s sequences might not match up closely to any of the pre-developed vaccines. Another negative consequence includes pharmacies and doctors offices running out of stock. Only a limited supply of each variation on the vaccine would be available at each location. This may lead to a shortage of a single vaccine, causing a slowing of the vaccination process and frustration among patients. Positive results would be that the vaccines would be personalized for you, so it would provide a better chance of immunity than present day vaccines do.This could affect the mindset of many different people in the united states. In america alone 53 percent of people do not get the flu vaccine. This is causing mass break out of the flu every where, in this year alone hundreds of people have died from H3N2. This hyper virus is very hard to identify, and the flu vaccine for 2017 is not compatible since scientist were not expecting an H3 strain this year. Hopefully with our future technology people sill start taking there vaccines seriously. With a promise to have a better adapted vaccine and a higher success rate, we hope to change the minds of even the most stubborn patients. This change of view can impact huge masses of people, stopping the spread of the flu can help millions.