ABSTRACT and audio lessons on demand, video conferencing with

                                                      ABSTRACT  Inmobile learning, learners attain knowledge, information at his/her ease oftime, place and situation without disturbing his/her other routine/job works.

Moreover having knowledge, information ,skills as given above simultaneously bymany learner, students or people by modern means like cellular phone, internet,laptop, desktop, social media like hike, email, facebook etc is ubiquitouslearning. Mobile and ubiquitous leaning has broken water tight compartment separationof formal, informal, and non formal learning. Though it has brought all on commonplatform. Formal and non formal classes can be accessed by mobile and ubiquitouslearning. Govt. Education departments are also following modern educationaltechniques like internet ,broadband, Radio ,TV, Wi-Fi   etc.

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in campus of universities, colleges andschools to support mobile and ubiquitous learning to maximizes the reach ofeducation, information and knowledge to the beneficiaries .  Main components of mobile and ubiquitous learningare devices like cell phone, laptop etc by which knowledge is accessed, Contentmatter means knowledge/information ,skill which is to be accessed must be up tomark and authentic, Learner who is to have knowledge like student, generalpublic, teachers and educators etc. Mobile and ubiquitous learning has tremendousapplication in education.

Lesson can be accessed like video and audio lessonson demand, video conferencing with many experts at a place. Knowledge can beshared by a lecture to many ones within no time .It has direct beneficialimpact on education as it is paperless, 24/7 available, large assignments canbe shared easily, flexible, cost effective as internet and electronic devicesare getting low cost day by day definitely it would enthused the learning andeducation. But challenges to education in mobile and ubiquities learning cannotbe ruled out. So mechanism to control it must be put in place and strengthened.Cyber crimes, problem of copyright of authentic knowledge as well as piracy to originalinformation posing serious threats to education.

   Economic as well as knowledge losses arethere due to it too. Unauthentic knowledge must be examined debugged at onceand regular scrutiny be done. Sometimes Devices are not easily compatible datatransfer gets interrupted.

Regular updating of software, systems must becarried out. On the whole it is proving to be boon to education.       INTRODUCTION MOBILELEARNING: It is, in wider context, is learning while someone mobile, notsetting at one place,, moving at any place , at any time suitable to the learner.Keeping books with someone for learning everytime/everyplace facilitateslearning at ease but keeping book always is quite cumbersome.Innarrow content or specific way” In M learning the learner pursue study at theirown pace and place (campus/home/workplace) they do not have to withdrawthemselves from their work/job and they can compute their course of study fromdifferent institutions and university, learner can even study from differentcountries simultaneously. One learner can take guidance from more than oneteacher at a time, learner can share information with teacher and other friendsthrough this mobile learning .This can enable the learner to gain control ofthe learning process and achieve mastery in subject”  Among the various mode of education, mobilelearning in India is becoming a need of the hour. The rapid growth oftechnology makes M learning possible in India.

                                                   Jammu andKashmir initiativesThestate Jammu and Kashmir govt. Education department introduced a learningsoftware Edu comp wherein introductory training of using modern means of impartingknowledge to all the state Govt. teachers is given.

This is also to recognizethe need of hour. Moreover computers, internet according to strength ofstudents, are being allotted to school to promote e learning (contribute tomobile learning). Wi-Fi connections and computer laboratories are also inpipeline to be provided to schools this will also promote mobile learning inteachers and students.Accordingto mobile learning by Norbert Pachta Ben Bachmrin john cook 2010 mobilelearning should be restricted to learning on device which lady or a gentlemancan carry in his pocket.Accordingto Keegan ,2005 today more than 6 billion people have access a connectedmobile device. It has reduced the dropout’s rate by 22% in worldwide.

Mobilelearning is an education system with the help of mobile devices is a continuousaccess to the learning process . Mobile learning is a flexible technique whichallows students to access the education at any place and at any time. Students usethe mobile app and tools to complete and upload their assignment task to teachers.

They can download course institutions and can also work online social group tocomplete their tasks.  Mobilelearning provides an opportunity to access educational environment and resourcesand with other learners without being limited by time and space. According toBoyinbode  and Akinyede  2008 ” mobile learning is a combination ofmobile technologies and appropriate pedagogy to allow learners to interact withlearning environment, and other learners at any time from any    location. Mobile learning is effectively asub category of the larger concept of e-learning.”Mobilelearning as the interaction of mobile computing and e learning.

E learningoffers new methods for education based on computer internet technology.                                                        UBIQUITIOUS LEARNINGGettingknowledge/information/education anyplace, anytime by many people .Definitelyindispensable things related to mobile learning techniques are computer,cellular phone, tablets, e mails, and facebook, twitter, whatsapp, and hike etcsocial media too.Ubiquitouslearning institution: It is situated and immersive and this could take placefrom traditional classroom in a virtual environment.Oneto one learning is based on belief that people learn differently as result ofown personally handled computing devices. Attributes of the devices areportability, connectivity and context sensitivity, when it is combined withsound pedagogical ideas can transform learning from being a merely productiveknowledge acquisition process to an active social interaction activity. Ubiquitouslearner is more than just the latest educational idea or method. Learningoccurs not in classroom but everywhere in playgroups, workplace, home, library,museum, and in our daily interaction with others.

Ubiquitous learning is oftendefined as learning anywhere, anytime and is associated with mobile andtechnologies.Nicholasc. Burbules (2009) director of ubiquitous learning institute at the Universityof Illinois gave six aspect of it.1)     Spatialubiquity: we have constant access to internet or other has constant access toyou.

The distinction of formal v/s informal learning blurred as people canaccess the internet in class or outside, both mode of learning can be pursuedby ubiquitous learning.2)     Mobiledevice: like laptop, phone, computers are used in achieving learning.3)     Interconnectedness:With web: 2.

0 technologies we are connected to constantly not only toinformation but to people expertise. It is correlated to (Siemens 2005 theoryof connectivism) knowledge is more important than its source.4)     Practicalubiquity: traditions lines are blurred, Burbules 2009: work/ playlearning/entertainment accessing / getting info public/private are distinctionthat conceptually might now have been act as our usage suggested to them to belike project based learning which may or may not have technology components.5)     Temporalubiquity learning can be scheduled to habits and preferences. This also denotesa shift in perception of and interaction with time.6)     Globalizedtransitional network: in world continual flows of ideas, information and peopleacross tradition physical and cultural barriers. We are in age of fundamentalinterconnectedness.

                 Major components of mobile And Ubiquitous learning      Devices (Cellphones, laptop, desktop, tablets etc.)                                        Contentmatter (Authentic, need based, Apt., feedback etc.) Mobile and Ubiquitous learning   Learner(Students, teachers,                                                                                                                                      Provider (Websites, Institutions etc)Peopleof all ages etc.)Challengesto mobile and ubiquitous leaning1Designing learning materials for mobile devices: learning material must beunbiased and free from all prejudices and can be caught easily.

Everythingshould be understandable.2Dealing with connectivity and battery life: wholly solely dependence onelectronic devices requires good quality battery as well as good connectivity.3Avoiding the risk of distraction: availability of learning material should befree from all distraction with great speed and free from errors.4Money factor: mobile learning must be cheaper, good technology and internetmust be cheaper.

5Application limitations: Some applications of computer are not compatible and notsynchronize data; these kinds of issues must be taken care of seriously6Generational appeals: Software must be user friendly and old age disable peoplemust be able to operate easily and can do away with technology easily.7Connectivity could be missing: connectivity of devices must be solid and consolidated.So that Maximum information can be transposed.8Limited information, a limitation: Maximum information should be uploaded and expertiseof which is still at dearth.

9Devices compatibility: Devices must be compatible to maximum extent so thatknowledge can be transferred.10Authenticity of content: Content must be authentic as some hackers can upload misinformation. 11Problem of copyright/privacy: Some important material which is having copyrightmust not be reproduced without the due permission of the owner of the materialand moreover piracy in cyber space must be eliminated.12Cyber crimes: Cyber law must be made and enforced and its mechanism too must beimproved                                  Applicationsof mobile and ubiquitous learning1Video on demand: Every lesson of all class and topic is available at YouTube,educational sites, NIOS site2Video conferencing: any topic can be elaborated by it by many experts at a time3Camera and video in mobile phones: any good material can be in caught in cameraof mobile and video of lesson   can bestored in it too.

4Location based services: some universities provide good payable site, payabledownload material5send/receivelarge e-mail messages6Mobile TV: Vyas channel, Gyan Darshan, Gyan vani can be accessed by mobile app.7Mobile broad band: It provides good speed of data and uninterrupted too. Itenthused the learning.8Getting information: getting every type of information at a time by many ones9Scientific applications: Certain specific theories, formulas are easilyaccessed and used positively.

10SMS/MMS, text and picture messages: Students can make mms lessons of a classand can learn at their ease .SMS can be used to short information of referenceof sites, places etc.11EMMRC lesson from New Delhi: lesson on all topic all class can be accessed.