ABSTRACT and audio lessons on demand, video conferencing with



mobile learning, learners attain knowledge, information at his/her ease of
time, place and situation without disturbing his/her other routine/job works.
Moreover having knowledge, information ,skills as given above simultaneously by
many learner, students or people by modern means like cellular phone, internet,
laptop, desktop, social media like hike, email, facebook etc is ubiquitous
learning. Mobile and ubiquitous leaning has broken water tight compartment separation
of formal, informal, and non formal learning. Though it has brought all on common
platform. Formal and non formal classes can be accessed by mobile and ubiquitous
learning. Govt. Education departments are also following modern educational
techniques like internet ,broadband, Radio ,TV, Wi-Fi   etc. in campus of universities, colleges and
schools to support mobile and ubiquitous learning to maximizes the reach of
education, information and knowledge to the beneficiaries .  Main components of mobile and ubiquitous learning
are devices like cell phone, laptop etc by which knowledge is accessed, Content
matter means knowledge/information ,skill which is to be accessed must be up to
mark and authentic, Learner who is to have knowledge like student, general
public, teachers and educators etc. Mobile and ubiquitous learning has tremendous
application in education. Lesson can be accessed like video and audio lessons
on demand, video conferencing with many experts at a place. Knowledge can be
shared by a lecture to many ones within no time .It has direct beneficial
impact on education as it is paperless, 24/7 available, large assignments can
be shared easily, flexible, cost effective as internet and electronic devices
are getting low cost day by day definitely it would enthused the learning and
education. But challenges to education in mobile and ubiquities learning cannot
be ruled out. So mechanism to control it must be put in place and strengthened.
Cyber crimes, problem of copyright of authentic knowledge as well as piracy to original
information posing serious threats to education.   Economic as well as knowledge losses are
there due to it too. Unauthentic knowledge must be examined debugged at once
and regular scrutiny be done. Sometimes Devices are not easily compatible data
transfer gets interrupted. Regular updating of software, systems must be
carried out. On the whole it is proving to be boon to education.

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LEARNING: It is, in wider context, is learning while someone mobile, not
setting at one place,, moving at any place , at any time suitable to the learner.
Keeping books with someone for learning everytime/everyplace facilitates
learning at ease but keeping book always is quite cumbersome.

narrow content or specific way” In M learning the learner pursue study at their
own pace and place (campus/home/workplace) they do not have to withdraw
themselves from their work/job and they can compute their course of study from
different institutions and university, learner can even study from different
countries simultaneously. One learner can take guidance from more than one
teacher at a time, learner can share information with teacher and other friends
through this mobile learning .This can enable the learner to gain control of
the learning process and achieve mastery in subject”  Among the various mode of education, mobile
learning in India is becoming a need of the hour. The rapid growth of
technology makes M learning possible in India.

                                                   Jammu and
Kashmir initiatives

state Jammu and Kashmir govt. Education department introduced a learning
software Edu comp wherein introductory training of using modern means of imparting
knowledge to all the state Govt. teachers is given. This is also to recognize
the need of hour. Moreover computers, internet according to strength of
students, are being allotted to school to promote e learning (contribute to
mobile learning). Wi-Fi connections and computer laboratories are also in
pipeline to be provided to schools this will also promote mobile learning in
teachers and students.

to mobile learning by Norbert Pachta Ben Bachmrin john cook 2010 mobile
learning should be restricted to learning on device which lady or a gentleman
can carry in his pocket.

to Keegan ,2005 today more than 6 billion people have access a connected
mobile device. It has reduced the dropout’s rate by 22% in worldwide.

learning is an education system with the help of mobile devices is a continuous
access to the learning process . Mobile learning is a flexible technique which
allows students to access the education at any place and at any time. Students use
the mobile app and tools to complete and upload their assignment task to teachers.
They can download course institutions and can also work online social group to
complete their tasks. 

learning provides an opportunity to access educational environment and resources
and with other learners without being limited by time and space. According to
Boyinbode  and Akinyede  2008 ” mobile learning is a combination of
mobile technologies and appropriate pedagogy to allow learners to interact with
learning environment, and other learners at any time from any    location. Mobile learning is effectively a
sub category of the larger concept of e-learning.”

learning as the interaction of mobile computing and e learning. E learning
offers new methods for education based on computer internet technology.


knowledge/information/education anyplace, anytime by many people .Definitely
indispensable things related to mobile learning techniques are computer,
cellular phone, tablets, e mails, and facebook, twitter, whatsapp, and hike etc
social media too.

learning institution: It is situated and immersive and this could take place
from traditional classroom in a virtual environment.

to one learning is based on belief that people learn differently as result of
own personally handled computing devices. Attributes of the devices are
portability, connectivity and context sensitivity, when it is combined with
sound pedagogical ideas can transform learning from being a merely productive
knowledge acquisition process to an active social interaction activity. Ubiquitous
learner is more than just the latest educational idea or method. Learning
occurs not in classroom but everywhere in playgroups, workplace, home, library,
museum, and in our daily interaction with others. Ubiquitous learning is often
defined as learning anywhere, anytime and is associated with mobile and

c. Burbules (2009) director of ubiquitous learning institute at the University
of Illinois gave six aspect of it.

1)     Spatial
ubiquity: we have constant access to internet or other has constant access to
you. The distinction of formal v/s informal learning blurred as people can
access the internet in class or outside, both mode of learning can be pursued
by ubiquitous learning.

2)     Mobile
device: like laptop, phone, computers are used in achieving learning.

3)     Interconnectedness:
With web: 2.0 technologies we are connected to constantly not only to
information but to people expertise. It is correlated to (Siemens 2005 theory
of connectivism) knowledge is more important than its source.

4)     Practical
ubiquity: traditions lines are blurred, Burbules 2009: work/ play
learning/entertainment accessing / getting info public/private are distinction
that conceptually might now have been act as our usage suggested to them to be
like project based learning which may or may not have technology components.

5)     Temporal
ubiquity learning can be scheduled to habits and preferences. This also denotes
a shift in perception of and interaction with time.

6)     Globalized
transitional network: in world continual flows of ideas, information and people
across tradition physical and cultural barriers. We are in age of fundamental


Major components of mobile And Ubiquitous learning

      Devices (Cell
phones, laptop, desktop, tablets etc.)                                        Content
matter (Authentic, need based, Apt., feedback etc.)

and Ubiquitous learning



(Students, teachers,                                                                                                                                      Provider (Websites, Institutions etc)

of all ages etc.)

to mobile and ubiquitous leaning

Designing learning materials for mobile devices: learning material must be
unbiased and free from all prejudices and can be caught easily. Everything
should be understandable.

Dealing with connectivity and battery life: wholly solely dependence on
electronic devices requires good quality battery as well as good connectivity.

Avoiding the risk of distraction: availability of learning material should be
free from all distraction with great speed and free from errors.

Money factor: mobile learning must be cheaper, good technology and internet
must be cheaper.

Application limitations: Some applications of computer are not compatible and not
synchronize data; these kinds of issues must be taken care of seriously

Generational appeals: Software must be user friendly and old age disable people
must be able to operate easily and can do away with technology easily.

Connectivity could be missing: connectivity of devices must be solid and consolidated.
So that Maximum information can be transposed.

Limited information, a limitation: Maximum information should be uploaded and expertise
of which is still at dearth.

Devices compatibility: Devices must be compatible to maximum extent so that
knowledge can be transferred.

Authenticity of content: Content must be authentic as some hackers can upload mis

Problem of copyright/privacy: Some important material which is having copyright
must not be reproduced without the due permission of the owner of the material
and moreover piracy in cyber space must be eliminated.

Cyber crimes: Cyber law must be made and enforced and its mechanism too must be

of mobile and ubiquitous learning

Video on demand: Every lesson of all class and topic is available at YouTube,
educational sites, NIOS site

Video conferencing: any topic can be elaborated by it by many experts at a time

Camera and video in mobile phones: any good material can be in caught in camera
of mobile and video of lesson   can be
stored in it too.

Location based services: some universities provide good payable site, payable
download material

large e-mail messages

Mobile TV: Vyas channel, Gyan Darshan, Gyan vani can be accessed by mobile app.

Mobile broad band: It provides good speed of data and uninterrupted too. It
enthused the learning.

Getting information: getting every type of information at a time by many ones

Scientific applications: Certain specific theories, formulas are easily
accessed and used positively.

SMS/MMS, text and picture messages: Students can make mms lessons of a class
and can learn at their ease .SMS can be used to short information of reference
of sites, places etc.

EMMRC lesson from New Delhi: lesson on all topic all class can be accessed.