A Distant Mirror Reading Assignment Part

Roman De la Rose (most popular book of the age) or Image du Monde (most widely read encyclopedia) 3: 58 & 9: 218 12. Black swellings the size of an egg or apple under the arms and near the groin. They oozed blood and pus and were soon proceeded by black spots on the skin, created by internal bleeding. 5: 92 13. It destroyed about a third of Rupee’s population, so approximately 20 million people died. However, the numbers are not exact and no one truly knows how many died. 5: 94 The dead died too fast for the living to bury them. The Black Death caused Florentine bankruptcies, crop failures, and worker riots. : 96 14.

Throughout all cities; Paris, Flanders, London, and York, the plague ripped them apart, causing one to two thirds of the population to be lost. 15. Most medical treatments were those used to extract poison out of the body, such as; bleeding, purging with laxatives or enemas,lancing or accoutering, etc. None proved to be successful so the doctors turned to the supernatural. 5: 105 16. Innocent Ill required all Jews to wear a badge of identification in 1215. 5: 112 17. During the “Truce of God” fighting was suspended on saints’ days, Sundays, and Easter. This truce was brought forth to bring relief to combat. 6: 134 18.

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Expulsions and persecutions were used against the Jews. Christians seized Jewish property. 19. Were required to pay fees for everything they used. 7: 172 Paved hearth tax, clerical tithe, aids for the lord’s ransom and knighting of his son and marriage of his daughter. 20. Sex was considered sinful in any other means besides those “ordained by nature”. The Church looked down upon sex as well as women and considered women the Devil. 9: 213 21. Lingoes was sacked and burned and in doing so, a blood-soaked story spread wrought France, stirring up resistance, finally leading to the long-lived hatred for the English.

This hated also brought Joan of Arc to Orleans 50 years later. 12: 264 22. Dutchmen says that John Wiggly shows the greatest responsibility. 16: 339 23. John Wiggly provoked anti-clericalism and proposed a thesis that called for “nothing less than disembodiment of the temporal property of the Church and the exclusion of the clergy from temporal government. ” He wanted to express national interest and popular feeling. 14: 287 24. Catherine of Siena tried to resolve the “Great Schism”. 16: 323 Feudalism in Europe Questions 1. The three characteristics of feudal political organization were as following.

First, the lack of institution of a strong centralized state. In not having said state, there was no central government, like society today. This caused feudal lords to take power over small groups, which made it hard to collect tax, issue laws, keep the peace, etc. With a centrally controlled government, all these processes are made possible, and thus the government we have today is created. The second characteristic was that feudal lords and their subordinate followers were drawn from a class of heavily armored horse-riding fighting men.

These men formed tight bonds within their own ranks, and brought into the light, fiefs and vassal. In society today these can only slightly be considered as ties that hold together gangs or the Mafia. So in reality, we have nothing like vassalage and fiefs. Third and finally was that the economic system of feudal Europe was agrarian. Europe relied upon farmers to cultivate crops and bring food in from only their country. Each small town, castle, settlement, etc, needed to contain it’s own certain set of farmers to help sustain the whole population of said settlement.

In society today, e do farm from our own lands but we also import food and crops that we need in seasons we cannot grow in ourselves. All of the advances that we have made from the time of the 10-1 13th century to present day, have either put us two steps ahead of the game, or set us back in certain areas. In this respect, we have grown exponentially and continue to as each year passes, whereas in Europe, stagnated and did not grown as much as it could of it it’s time. 2. Villages: The personal bond of loyalty and obedience by which a warrior promised service to a lord or chieftain in return for military protection, security, and assistance.

Fief: The fief was a type of income-producing property that provided the vassal with wealth and leisure he needed to maintain his status as a fighting man: it also served as his loyalty and guarantee his continued service. 3. A political economy in which control over land constituted the principal form of wealth. 4. In most parts of Europe, feudal social organization rise and fall were slow and evolutionary. Things developed in stages and fell in stages as well. Everything was built up from the early Christian era and finally fell (in most places) by the 16th century.