Throughout our essay, we explored how contemporary political populism
involves new practices and new actors, because it manifests itself in a more
complex environment.

First, we argued that the lack of
ideological coherence was not enough anymore to understand contemporary
political populism. Indeed, we stated that radical right populists politicians
now use political populism as the element that serves as form of communication,
in order to express ideologies, such as nativism and authoritarianism. 

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Then, we stated that we witnessed a trend
towards the decrease of populists’ ideology and the increase of means of
communication, which in turn allows existing populists politicians and new
political actors to use, -at different degrees-, political populism as a
fruitful strategy.

Moreover, we argued that this political
strategy is always expressed, through specific elements of communication, in
order to be perceived as siding with “the people”.

Therefore, we recall our main argument that
political populism can be best understood as a form of communication, because
it is always a political phenomenon that is systematically located within
political discourse.

    
Finally, we state that the limitations of this essay stem from the lack
of analysis of contemporary radical left populists politicians. In fact, this
essay does not pretend to paint a complete picture of how to understand
political populism, because it mainly draw on the rise of the populist
far-right that has swept through Europe and the United States within the past
two years.