Hofstede (1997) claimed that, the broad nature of a culture that encompasses various dimensions shape societies purchasing patterns – in turn adapting consumer behaviour. Hofstede is highlighting that consumer behaviour is tailored to cultural differences, however, this is a very broad statement which doesn’t necessarily underline how humour, in particular, can affect purchasing patterns. Frith and Mueller (2003) embody advertising with a mirroring function, meaning that your style of living dictates the manner in which you consume. Frith & Muellers mirroring function has been apparent in many pieces of research relating to the question, with further support from Sethna & Blythe (2016) whom also scribed that consumer behaviour mirrors the consumers value patterns and beliefs, each of these can be embedded into the definition of culture itself.  This mirroring function allows room for critics to suggest that advertisements can create a distorted view of society, leading consumers to desire and need after unrealistic images (Boorstin, 1963). Pollay (1987) used this to suggest a ‘consumer culture’ has taken off from advertisements connection to business and capitalism, that choose to reflect values in order to increase sales and ultimately profit. Despite Pollays argument not specifically fitting to the research question, it is a crucial opinion with high value as, it aids the field of research to further understanding of why marketing tools are used – a tangent from the topic itself.

Sivulka (1998) highlighted the need for understanding and appreciating cultural differences is growing rapidly, particularly as globalisation increases along with international campaigns. This is viewed as a task for advertisers as they must consider all elements of the final campaign, to ensure it appeals to all cultures without offence. Sivulkas research is focused and relevant to the research question as It begins to create room for advertisers to question how all elements of a campaign can appeal cross-culturally, therefore it is of high value in regards to the field of research.

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