5. DOWNFALL (1828-1923) Every expansion has an end, and every empire has a life span. The declineof the Ottoman Empire began from a series of wars between Russia and theOttoman Empire, which is the Russo-Turkish wars in the 17th to 19thcentury. For instance, Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829 sparked as the Greeks’fight for independence, in which Russian forces advanced into Bulgaria, theCaucasus, and northeastern Anatolia itself before the Turks sued for peace. InSeptember 1829, sultan was forced to sign the Treaty of Edirne and demandedpeace resulting Russia was awarded most of the eastern shore of the Black Sea,Moldavia and Serbia were gained autonomy within the Ottoman Empire, whileGreece eventually became an independent state.1The war in 1831-1833, known as the first Egyptian-Ottoman war was a conflictof military brought about by Muhammad Ali Pasha’s order to the Ottoman Empirefor control of Greater Syria, as reward for his aid to Greece in Crete. As aresult, Muhammad Ali’s forces temporarily gained control of Syria and marchednorth to Adana.
2Subsequently, the Crimean War (1853-1856) was part of a long-runningcompetition between the major European powers for influence over the decliningterritories of the Ottoman Empire. The financial burden of the war led the Ottomanstate to issue a total of 5 million pounds of foreign loans on 4August 1854. In the aftermath of the war, about 200,000 of people migrated to theOttoman Empire, causing a wave of emigration. Toward the end of the CaucasianWars, 90% of the Circassians were ethnically purged and exiled from the Caucasushomelands to the Ottoman Empire, resulting in the settlement of 500,000 to700,000 Circassians in Turkey. SomeCircassian organisations provide more numbers for a total 1-1.5 milliondeported or killed.
Crimean Tartar refugees played a particularly significant rolein the late 19th century in seeking to modernize Ottoman education and in firstpromoting both Pan-Turkicism and a sense of Turkish nationalism. 3 Thetreaty of Paris (1856), signed in Paris on 30 March 1856 ended the Crimean War.The treaty was signed between Russia on one side and France, Great Britain,Sardinia-Piedmont, and Turkey on the other. The treaty gave special attentionto this problem because the western European powers fought against Russia to protectOttoman Turkey. The signatories guaranteed the Turkey’s independence andterritorial integrity.4 The lastRusso-Turkish War (1877-1878) was also the most important one. In 1877, Russiaand its ally Serbia proposedto Bosnia, Herzegovina andBulgaria in their rebellions against Turkish rule. Russians attacked throughBulgaria, and after successfully concluding the Siege of Pleventheyadvanced into Thrace, taking Adrianople in January 1878.
In March of the sameyear, Russia concluded a Treaty of SanStefano with Turkey. The treaty ended the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878 and freedRomania, Serbia, and Montenegro from Turkish rule, given Bosnia and Herzegovina autonomy and established a huge autonomous Bulgariaunder Russian’s protection. The Britain andAustria-Hungary were appalled by the Russian gains in the treaty, forcingRussia to accept the Treaty of Berlin (July1878), in which Russia’s military-political gains from the war were severelyrestricted.
5The Sultanate was apowerful organization for some time. The decline of sultanate in Ottoman Empirewas one of the primary cause of the decline of the empire. The sultanateweakened gradually over periods of time.
Later in the reign of Suleyman, Theimperial decline began. Although he was the peak of golden age, Suleyman wasless concerned with the affairs of country added to that his two qualifiedsuccessors were unfavorable to him. As Selim II became Sultan, he had littleexperience in the government operations.
After him, the decline of theSultanate continued. As the brothers of the Sultans were confined to the harem,they became incompetent. 6Another reason tothe decline of the empire was the corruption of the government’s control overthe empire as the Sultans renounced their tradition of training their sons inrelated affairs and government.
Concomitantly, the balance of power changes becauseof the Ottoman military division, the janissary has been fighting andconquering new lands to became the most powerful nation. As time passed, the fightingmethods of the janissaries became old-fashioned and no longer became an unrivaledarmy. In the end, the Ottoman Empire collapsed, the government declined withthe degeneration of the sultanate as well as the Ottomans failed toindustrialize and the empire was destroyed when war overwhelmed it during WorldWar I.7 Later, Ottoman Empire started tocollapse.
In 1908, the Young Turk Revolution, a reformist and stronglynationalist group, with many adherents in the army led a revolutionary movementagainst the authoritarian regime of Ottoman sultan Abdulhamid II and eventuallythe establishment of a constitutional government.8The Young Turk Movement had inaugurated the Second Constitutional Era andlasted until the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in 1918.9 The Balkan War (1912-1913), twosuccessive military conflicts deprived the Ottoman Empire of almost all itsremaining territory in Europe. The first Balkan War broke out between membersof the Balkan Alliance, Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and the OttomanEmpire. Turkey’s collapse was complete that all parties were willing to end thetruce on 3 December 1912. According to a peace treaty signed in London on 30May 1913, the territories of Ottoman Empire lost include all the Macedonia andAlbania.
10In 10August 1920, the Treaty ofSevres was signed with the Ottoman Empire after the end of World War I. Itterritorially carved up the ‘Sick Man of Europe’. The treaty abolished the Ottoman Empire and obliged Turkey to renounce all rights overArab Asia and North Africa. The pact also provided for an independent Armenia, for an autonomous Kurdistan, and for a Greek presence in eastern Thrace and on the Anatolian west coast, as well asGreek control over the Aegean islands commanding the Dardanelles. Rejected bythe new Turkish nationalist regime, the Treaty of Sevres was replaced by the Treaty of Lausanne in1923.11Finally, the sultanate and theOttoman dynasty were abolished on1 November 1922, and the empire came to an end.
The shock ofWorld War I would destroy the Ottoman Empire once and for all, breaking it intowhat have become such Middle Eastern nations as Turkey, Iraq, Saudi Arabia,Jordan, Lebanon, and Israel. The empire collapsedcompletely giving the rise of the modern secular state Turkey.121 Russo-Turkish wars. (n.
d.). Retrieved fromhttps://www.britannica.com/topic/Russo-Turkish-wars2 Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–1833). (n.d.).
Retrievedfromhttps://www.revolvy.com/topic/Egyptian%E2%80%93Ottoman%20War%20(1831%E2%80%931833)&item_type=topic3 Ibid.4 Treaty of Paris. (n.d.).
Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/event/Treaty-of-Paris-18565 Ibid.6 The Decline of the Ottoman Empire Essay. (November 14, 2012).Retrieved from http://www.antiessays.
com/free-essays/The-Decline-Of-The-Ottoman-Empire-349908.html7 Ibid.8 Young Turks. (n.d.).
Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Young-Turks-Turkish-nationalist-movement9 The SecondConstitutional Period, 1908–1918. (2008). M. ?ükrü Hanio?lu. Retrieved from https://www.
cambridge.org/core/books/the-cambridge-history-of-turkey/the-second-constitutional-period-19081918/2619E59AD2DA03113550FE8FF32909D610 Balkan Wars. (n.d.
). Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Balkan-Wars11 Treaty of Sevres. (n.d.).
Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/event/Treaty-of-Sevres12 The Ottoman Empire. (March 3, 2015). Retrieved from http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-optional-subjects/group-iv/islamic-history-culture/99478-ottoman-empire-notes.html