4. Analysisof Data Collected 4.1 Comparison Between Behavior ofMen and Women on Facebook As Thompson & Lougheed (2012) pointed out, researchthat is specific to social networking communication of gender is hard to find. Moreover, researchthat looksspecificallyat Facebook communication and behavior about gender is even more limited. Therefore,the present study will fill in this gap in knowledge by extending literature ongender differences in interpersonal and computer-mediated communication toFacebook communication behaviors. The goal is to gain a deeper understanding ofhow individuals communicate on Facebook and whether or not established patternsin gendered communication are perpetuated in this popular online environment.
4.2 Profile / Cover Photos andGender Content analysis was used as data collection method andprofile and cover pictures of 464 Facebook users included in the survey wereexamined.Zhaoet al. (2008: 1825) argue that the tendency to show / display instead of telling/ saying is the basis of identity in online environments. Therefore, withinthis research, the Facebook profile and cover images without verbal elementswere considered as a review unit in order to investigate the self presentationon Facebook. 4.
2.1 Are There SignificantRelationships Between Gender With Facebook Profile Image Features?Whetheror not there is a meaningful relationship between the characteristics ofFacebook profile pictures and gender variation is examined by chi-square test.As aresult, it is understood that there is no meaningful relationship between thegender and the number of profiles, ownership of physical profile, naturalness,social suitability, number of persons in the profile picture and proximity ofother person in the profile Picture. There is no significant relationshipbetween gender variables and profile picture attributes.4.2.
2 Are There SignificantRelationships Between Facebook Cover Image Features and Gender?A chi-square test was performed to see if therewas a significant relationship between cover image features and gendervariation. As a result of the test, it was revealed that there is nosignificant relationship between gender and the number of cover pictures, thecover image ownership ( whether it is official or not)physical activity level, naturalness, social suitability, number of people inthe cover picture and proximity of the other person in the cover picture.Onthe other hand, it was determined that there is a significant relationshipbetween the presence of the cover image and the gender variable.
While 77.1% ofwomen had a cover photo, this rate was 68.8% for men. Women tend to use coverphoto higher than men. Hum and his colleagues (2011) found that that in termsof features of profile pictures, there is no difference between genders amongFacebook users between the ages of 18-23. Therewere also differences of self-presentation between male and female Facebookusers in different marital status and age groups. In this respect, it can besaid that gender roles are determinative in self presentation on Facebook,especially in profile and cover pictures.Whena person presents himself or herself to others, the performance is officiallyapproved by the community and contains much more than its values and behaviors.
Goffman calls this a “idealized performance” (Goffman 2009:45). Althoughthe vast majority of profile and cover images are socially appropriate, such assituations like unappropriate pictures are shared only by single men, %50 ofmarried women have their children in cover pictures shows us thatself-presentation on Facebook is differentiated by gender roles and traditionalgender roles may be decisive in self-presentation on Facebook. All this is anindication that Goffman’s “idealizing performance” is valid for thisresearch.
S. Tifferet, I. Vilnai-Yavetz / Computers in Human Behavior 35 (2014)388–3994.RecommendationsFacebookuse was found to be a significant element of the undergraduate social culturefor these undergraduates as 80% reported that Facebook was a part of their everydayroutines. In fact, almost 9 of 10 undergraduate women “stronglyagreed” or “agreed” with this survey item (females 88% stronglyagree/agree; males 71% strongly agree/agree).
This finding is similar to thatof the Rapleaf Study where they found that both genders use social media, butwomen exceed men in the time they spend on social media (Hoffman, 2008). In other results found here,the undergraduate females almost 62% of theirsocial media time on Facebook compared to 44% for the males.Furthermore,there were significant differences in the percentage of females compared maleswho use Facebook more than one hour per day and in the minutes spent. Daily examiningother Facebook profiles (females – 24 minutes; males – 10 minutes). It is possiblethat males utilize social networking sites other than Facebook and females areprimarily drawn to Facebook use.
One point is clear – these college undergraduatesspend a remarkable amount of time, almost two hours a day (117 minutes), usingsocial networking sites.People enjoy self-disclosureif they know other people are paying attention. Talking and showing is like asatisfaction towards good feelings. Previous studies have shown that women discloseto their close friends more than men. However, no study compared theirdisclosures across different media and different relationships. Male Facebookusers give preference to passing time more than females.
Female students preferuploading pictures more than male students. Females give more importance tomaintaining contacts with existing friends compared to males, while malestudents prefer making new contacts within Facebook. 5.
Conclusion In the part of data collected,the results of investigations explained in terms of self-presentation onFacebook with different gender roles; results of examining profile and cover pictures of theusers are discussed in this direction. Even though Hum and his colleagues(2011) found that that in terms of features of profile pictures, there is nodifference between genders among Facebook users between the ages of 18-23 ; inthis study, collected data and search results says that gender differences indifferent age groups and marital status differences are related to selfpresentation. The results are a result of examining Facebook images and consistentwith research that finds differences between genders. There were differences inself-presentation between male and female Facebook users in age groups. Genderroles are determinative in self presentation on Facebook, especially in profileand cover pictures. This research can be repeated with a sample that isrepresentative of the universe in future research. Furthermore, it is necessaryto investigate whether the variables such as education, income levels etc.
aredeterminant on self presentation. The decisive reasons forchoosing cover and profile images for Facebook users can be examined in depthusing qualitative research methods.