of Data Collected
4.1 Comparison Between Behavior of
Men and Women on Facebook
As Thompson & Lougheed (2012) pointed out, research
that is specific to social networking communication of gender is hard to find. Moreover, research
at Facebook communication and behavior about gender is even more limited. Therefore,
the present study will fill in this gap in knowledge by extending literature on
gender differences in interpersonal and computer-mediated communication to
Facebook communication behaviors. The goal is to gain a deeper understanding of
how individuals communicate on Facebook and whether or not established patterns
in gendered communication are perpetuated in this popular online environment.
4.2 Profile / Cover Photos and
Content analysis was used as data collection method and
profile and cover pictures of 464 Facebook users included in the survey were
et al. (2008: 1825) argue that the tendency to show / display instead of telling
/ saying is the basis of identity in online environments. Therefore, within
this research, the Facebook profile and cover images without verbal elements
were considered as a review unit in order to investigate the self presentation
4.2.1 Are There Significant
Relationships Between Gender With Facebook Profile Image Features?
or not there is a meaningful relationship between the characteristics of
Facebook profile pictures and gender variation is examined by chi-square test.
result, it is understood that there is no meaningful relationship between the
gender and the number of profiles, ownership of physical profile, naturalness,
social suitability, number of persons in the profile picture and proximity of
other person in the profile Picture. There is no significant relationship
between gender variables and profile picture attributes.
4.2.2 Are There Significant
Relationships Between Facebook Cover Image Features and Gender?
A chi-square test was performed to see if there
was a significant relationship between cover image features and gender
variation. As a result of the test, it was revealed that there is no
significant relationship between gender and the number of cover pictures, the
cover image ownership ( whether it is official or not)
physical activity level, naturalness, social suitability, number of people in
the cover picture and proximity of the other person in the cover picture.
the other hand, it was determined that there is a significant relationship
between the presence of the cover image and the gender variable. While 77.1% of
women had a cover photo, this rate was 68.8% for men. Women tend to use cover
photo higher than men. Hum and his colleagues (2011) found that that in terms
of features of profile pictures, there is no difference between genders among
Facebook users between the ages of 18-23.
were also differences of self-presentation between male and female Facebook
users in different marital status and age groups. In this respect, it can be
said that gender roles are determinative in self presentation on Facebook,
especially in profile and cover pictures.
a person presents himself or herself to others, the performance is officially
approved by the community and contains much more than its values and behaviors.
Goffman calls this a “idealized performance” (Goffman 2009:45).
the vast majority of profile and cover images are socially appropriate, such as
situations like unappropriate pictures are shared only by single men, %50 of
married women have their children in cover pictures shows us that
self-presentation on Facebook is differentiated by gender roles and traditional
gender roles may be decisive in self-presentation on Facebook. All this is an
indication that Goffman’s “idealizing performance” is valid for this
S. Tifferet, I. Vilnai-Yavetz / Computers in Human Behavior 35 (2014)
use was found to be a significant element of the undergraduate social culture
for these undergraduates as 80% reported that Facebook was a part of their everyday
routines. In fact, almost 9 of 10 undergraduate women “strongly
agreed” or “agreed” with this survey item (females 88% strongly
agree/agree; males 71% strongly agree/agree). This finding is similar to that
of the Rapleaf Study where they found that both genders use social media, but
women exceed men in the time they spend on social media (Hoffman, 2008). In other results found here,
the undergraduate females almost 62% of their
social media time on Facebook compared to 44% for the males.
there were significant differences in the percentage of females compared males
who use Facebook more than one hour per day and in the minutes spent. Daily examining
other Facebook profiles (females – 24 minutes; males – 10 minutes). It is possible
that males utilize social networking sites other than Facebook and females are
primarily drawn to Facebook use. One point is clear – these college undergraduates
spend a remarkable amount of time, almost two hours a day (117 minutes), using
social networking sites.
People enjoy self-disclosure
if they know other people are paying attention. Talking and showing is like a
satisfaction towards good feelings. Previous studies have shown that women disclose
to their close friends more than men. However, no study compared their
disclosures across different media and different relationships. Male Facebook
users give preference to passing time more than females. Female students prefer
uploading pictures more than male students. Females give more importance to
maintaining contacts with existing friends compared to males, while male
students prefer making new contacts within Facebook.
In the part of data collected,
the results of investigations explained in terms of self-presentation on
Facebook with different gender roles; results of examining profile and cover pictures of the
users are discussed in this direction. Even though Hum and his colleagues
(2011) found that that in terms of features of profile pictures, there is no
difference between genders among Facebook users between the ages of 18-23 ; in
this study, collected data and search results says that gender differences in
different age groups and marital status differences are related to self
presentation. The results are a result of examining Facebook images and consistent
with research that finds differences between genders. There were differences in
self-presentation between male and female Facebook users in age groups. Gender
roles are determinative in self presentation on Facebook, especially in profile
and cover pictures. This research can be repeated with a sample that is
representative of the universe in future research. Furthermore, it is necessary
to investigate whether the variables such as education, income levels etc. are
determinant on self presentation. The decisive reasons for
choosing cover and profile images for Facebook users can be examined in depth
using qualitative research methods.