1. What are some of the differences between rural life and city life in the 1750s-1800sWithin rural communities people kept to themselves within their town, while in cities they bought and sold to outside sources. People in rural life made product for their neighbors, while cities grew to become industrial cities, manufacturing goods for millions.2. What are some the advancements made during the Agricultural Revolution?Farmers invented new ways to plant crops, dikes were created to reclaim land from sea, crop rotation was put into effect, the seed drill was invented. Farms were becoming much more efficient.3. What is the relationship between the Agricultural Revolution and Population?Since more food was produced during the revolution, the population increased in turn as people started to live longer and more people wanted to have children because of this newfound sustainability.4. Why is coal the key to the “Energy Revolution” of this time?Coal is the key because it was used as fuel for many important machines like trains, smelters, and in processes to build bridges and railroads.5. Explain why the Industrial Revolution started in Britain?The Industrial Revolution started in Britain because they had better natural resources, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship. These were elements needed to produce many of the goods at the time. Britain also had a stable government which lead to economic growth. Since Britain was also a port, it allowed for lots of trade through the sea.6. Why was the textile industry the first major industry to Industrialize?The textile industry was the first major industry to be industrialized because of the putting-out system being developed. This created a stronger demand for cotton and therefore many machines were produced because of this. As more machines were made, more factories were added to the industry as it became industrialized.7. What are some of the changes that occurred in transportation?In transportation, turnpikes were built, canals were dug to connect rivers with ports, and railroads were built. Railroads were a big advancement since they didn’t need to follow a canal and easily be built across land.8. Why is the railroad so important to the Industrial Revolution?The railroad is so important to the industrial revolution because it allowed goods to travel across land, quickly and easily. Railroads also became popular in other areas in North America, Europe, and especially Britain.9. What is the relationship between price and demand?When demand increases, the seller can allow the price to increase as well, but this might lower the demand. With a high price, there might be low demand, so the price can be reduced to raise the demand. With less product, there is more demand and vice versa.10. Explain how industrialization spread throughout the world.Industrialization spread throughout the world by first starting Britain. Factories were sprouting up all over the place, then other European countries soon caught on. In that area, coal and iron were abundant so these countries had no problem starting up these factories. Other political advancements also helped nations industrialize.Application:11. What impact did Industrialization have on society as a whole?Industrialization improved the working conditions for many. It also increased the demand for products which generate jobs and working opportunities. This competition led to a decrease in consumer goods. From this easier accessibility of goods, other countries began to trade with another, spreading their culture as well.4.2.12. What does Industrialization and Urbanization have in common?These movements both changed the way how and where people worked and produced goods as a whole. Industrialization is the direct cause for Urbanization, since the need for workers pushed people to move to the cities.13. What is the Middle Class during this time period?During this time, the middle class was made up of the merchants, inventors, and entrepreneurs. The middle class could be full of wealthy people, but they were people who worked for their money and were not born with it.14. How do the lives of the working class compare to that of the middle class?The working class people lived in small rooms with no running water or sanitation. They didnt dress nicely, while the middle class did and had more comfortable jobs with running water, and nice houses. They lived much more comfortably.15. What is the difference between the upper class and the middle class?People in the upper class were born into wealth and were most likely educated. People in the middle class could become as wealthy as the upper class but were not born into it. People in the middle class could live comfortably, but the upper class lived with a surplus of wealth.16. What role did labor unions play in society, during the 1800s?Labor unions became upset with the conditions that they worked in so the started to protested against these businesses. These protests led to machines being broken and whole factories being burnt down.17. Describe the conditions in the Factories and the mines.In the factories, and the mines the conditions were very poor. Most workers were on the job for at least twelve hours a day and 6 days a week. They were given barely any time to eat food and were constantly plagued by injuries because of the complex machinery. In the mines, air was unclean and lung cancer was prevalent at this time. Wages were also a concern.18. A. What were conditions like for child laborers?Children started working at the age of six years old and were usually focused on small tasks. They often had to go through crawl spaces and in awkward places because of their size. Most children were worked to an extreme.B. What was done to benefit them?Some laws were passed to protect these children. One law made it illegal to hire someone who was under the age of nine years old. Overall, working became easier on children.19. What were the overall benefits of the 1st Industrial Revolution?Because of the 1st Industrial Revolution, people’s lives lasted longer. Advancements in sanitation and the accessibility of goods increased along with this. People could also travel more easily because of railroads and such so that they could seek any needed help. The prices of everyday objects dropped along with the industrialization.20. Describe the views of Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo and what influence they had on society during this time.Adam Smith stated that a free market would benefit everybody. He said that it would produce more goods at lower prices for all. He also said that a growing economy would let capitalism flourish with new inventions and profits for all. Thomas Malthus predicted that poverty was unavoidable because of how the population was increasing faster than the food supply could meet the demands of. Yet he was wrong due to agricultural advancements that allowed the population to continue increasing as the food supply grew with it. David Ricardo claimed that the poor had way too many children and could not escape poverty. He said that when wages were high, families had more children. But more children led to an increased demand for labor, which led to lower wages and higher unemployment.21. What is Jeremy Bentham’s view of utilitarianism?Jeremy Bentham pretty much came up with the idea of utilitarianism. He said that action should only be done to benefit the overall happiness of the people surrounding them22. A. What is Socialism?Socialism is the idea that people as a whole, rather than individually, would own their land and operate factories and farms, etc. It allowed people to earn for their entire country, not just themselves.B. Why would Socialism become a popular idea among the working class?It helped the poor because everyone was working together and everyone got the same outcome. So you didn’t have people with loads of money and other people with no money at all.22. A. What is Marxism/Communism?Communism is the thought that everything is publically owned and everyone works and gets paid according to their individual abilities. It was different from socialism in that there had to be a violent overthrow of the current state of government of capitalism.B. Why would communism become a popular idea among the working class?Communism would be popular because everyone would get paid to how they perform and what they need and then no one would be extremely poor and that would improve their lives.The 2nd Industrial Revolution4.323. What new innovations are created to help in production?One major innovation was the assembly line that dramatically increase the production of goods, as well as allowing them to be produced easier and more efficiently. ANother innovation was the ability to produce light from electricity. This allowed workers to work longer hours in a light environment.24. A. What is the major difference between the 1st Industrial Revolution and the 2nd Industrial Revolution?In the first revolution, many things were just being created for the first time, like steam power. In the second revolution, many things were just being improved upon, but with one major difference and that was the addition of electricity.B. How does the difference further boost production?With all the improvements made, more and more was able to be produced. Also, an assembly line was created during this time which helped move along production even faster, which also helped a boost in production. Because production boosted the cost of these items decreased.25. What are some improvements in communication?The telegraph was invented by Samuel Morse. Then for far distance, transatlantic cable was invented to allow communication between Europe and America. The the telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell. And the radio was invented by Guglielmo Marconi.26. What are some of the changes that occur in regards to businesses and how they are ran?Big business came to dominate their industries. Businesses formed giant corporations. Owners would sell stocks to investors. Powerful businesses created monopolies and trusts. Sometimes companies would join forces creating a sort of cartel. 27. What are the complaints in regards to big business?People claimed that big business were robbers. Businesses claimed that monopolies increased efficiency by driving out less efficient corporations. In reality, this businesses could charge a fortune for their product.28. What improvements are made in regards to the health of the people?People are finally starting to understand germs so they showered more often and changed their clothes and washed them more often. Pasteurization was invented to clean milk and kill bacteria in it. Tuberculosis was discovered, but not cured, and hospitals became more sanitary.29. What changes occur in the cities, during the 2nd Industrial Revolution?Instead of living in tenements people destroyed the tenements and built boulevards. There was a trolley system to get to your job if you didn’t live in the city. Lights lined the streets so streets were lit up at night. Sewage systems were created keeping streets clean.30. As time progresses, what improvements were made for the working class?The working class did make some gradual improvements over time. Workers formed mutual aid societies. Main tactic of unions was the strike. Working class people began to benefit from higher wages and better working conditions.4.3.31. What changes occur, in relationship to families, during the 2nd Industrial Revolution?In families, the division of labor between husband and wife changed. Ost middle class husbands went to work in an office or shop. Woman spent their time raising children, directing their servants and doing religious/ charitable service.32. What changes occur in regards to the roles of women?Woman started to train for jobs that normally would be a “man’s job” such as a doctor, lawyer, researcher, and inventor. Also women began to fight for their suffrage. As WW1 rolled along, women had to take charge and do all of the work that a man usually would. This lead to many advancements in women’s rights.33. A. What was the importance of Public Education?Public Education allowed for the thought that teaching, reading, writing, and math subjects taught equated to better citizens. Societies recognized the need for a literate workforce and educated citizens.B. Why was public education more important during the Industrial Revolutions than in the time before industrialization?Back then you were taught basic concepts you needed to know for the workforce and how to cact in the real word through public schooling.34. What changes occur in regards to Science?Science progressed in the aspect of the development of the modern atomic theory, the questioning of the Earth’s age, the theory of natural selection, and social darwinism.35. What is the Social Gospel and what impact did it have?The Social Gospel was a movement that urged Christians to social service. It spread Christian teachings and provided social services.36. Compare and contrast Romanticism and Realism art movements.Romanticism was a literary form that discussed imagination, freedom, and emotion. It shaped much of Western literature and arts. On the flip side, Realism aimed to represent the world as it is without much creative freedom.37. Compare and Contrast Impressionism and PostimpressionismImpressionism was a school of painting in the late 1800s and early 1900s that tried to capture fleeting visual impressions. Post impressionism was the development of a variety of styles. Georges Seurat arranged small dots of color to define the shape of objects. Van Gogh experimented with sharp brush lines and bright colors.Application38. Compare and Contrast the 1st Industrial Revolution to the 2nd Industrial Revolution.The first revolution was the beginning and small adjustments were made to make tasks easier. In the second revolution, many big improvements were made, like the assembly line to boost the production of goods. The living conditions of the second revolution were substantially better compared to the first as well.39. Is society better off after the Industrial Revolutions? Explain.Yes, ways of living were different, and ways of producing a product were made much easier. But as time went on, more technology was introduced and things that were big during the industrial revolution are not the same as they used to be back then.40. Why didn’t the Socialist and Communist overwhelmingly overthrow Capitalism/ Free Market Economies?The socialist and communist didn’t overthrow capitalism and the free market because they didn’t know if their thoughts would of ended up working out in the end, so if people benefited from capitalism and the free market economies they didn’t expect the people to automatically have faith in their views.