1. Background Information Inthis report, I observed a boy in Kindergarten 2, Sravanaesh s/o Sathivel.
He is 6 years11 months old. He was born on the 18th January 2011. He is theyoungest of two children. He has an older brother who is in Primary 5. He wasborn in Singapore.
He lives with his parents and his parents are his primarycaregiver. His parents are both diploma graduates and are working full time. Hisfather works in the ICA while his mother works as an administrative support. Sravanaeshattends enrichment classes such as Kumon, Tamil classes and swimming lessons. 2.
Introduction to Child Development Childdevelopment is study of patterns of growth, change and stability that occurthrough adolescence. It focuses on human development. Developmentalist whostudy the course of development focus on the ways people change and grow duringtheir lives, also considering stability in children’s and adolescents’ lives.
Thereare three main area in a child development; physical development, psychosocialdevelopment and cognitive development. Physicaldevelopment focuses on the body – the brain, nervous system, muscles and sensesaffect behavior. It focus on how a child moves which includes their gross motorskills, fine motor skills and eye hand coordination.
Psychosocialdevelopment focuses on the child’s feelings and how their interactions withothers grow and changes. Cognitivedevelopment focuses on intellectual abilities – learning, memory, problemsolving and their language skills. 3. Physical Development Physicaldevelopment consists of three areas; gross motor development, fine motordevelopment and eyes hand coordination skills.
Grossmotor skills involve big movements involving large muscles such as pushing,walking and running. Gross motor skills get more and more complex as childrenget older. Gross motor development displays cephalocaudal trend which beginsfrom head to toe. Once a toddler is able to stand, the trend has taken place. Finemotor skills use small movements involving small muscles such as talking,writing and drawing. Fine motor development displays Proximodistal Trend whichare movements from center of the body to the hands. From drawing / writing,young children start by using palmer grasping which involves the palm. Youngchildren have not full develop their fine motor skills hence they are usingpalmer grasping to hold an object.
As the get older, they will start usingpincer grasping which involves index finger and thumb, a higher level of finemotor skills. Handeye coordination is the ability to do activities that require the simultaneous useof our hands and eyes, involves fine motor development. All these movements come naturally when the childget the exposure to explore his/her surroundings, ensuring that they will getmore experience with their surroundings. With this exposure, the child’smovement / physical development will progress to more complex movements. Based on my observations, Sravanaesh has shownstable and well developed gross motor skills. This can be seen when hedemonstrated a good balance, climbing and coordination. His balance can be seenwhen he is able to balance on one leg which can be hard for most children as ittakes a great deal of muscle strength (referto Appendix pg 2, 9:39am – 9:41am). Sravanaesh also displays goodcoordination skills such as he is able to hold onto the rock wall placement andalso plan his steps to effectively climb down the rock wall (refer to Appendix pg 1, 9:37am – 9:39am).
He is able to integrate gross motor skills and good hand-eye coordination. As achild of his age, Sravanaesh should be able to perform all this movements likerunning, balancing, climbing however, he did more complex movements such asskipping three of the wall steps and get to the top faster (refer to Appendix pg 1, 9:32am – 9:35am). This shows that he isaware of his body such as knowing which movement to do at certain / specific times. Sravanaesh has excellent physical development. 4.
Psychosocial Development Psychosocialdevelopment involves social and emotional development. Social development isthe process of interactions, ability to adjust and adapt. With constant attachmentand trust a child has with his or her parents or caregivers, this will help thechild create a close bond and relationship with them. There are twomain different attachment theory with relations to psychosocial development. Firstly,Ethological Explanation (Bowlby J. 1986),which stated that a child develops attachment with the person who best reads andresponds to his / her signal. This child is capable of developing secure orinsecure attachment. Unlike the first theory, the second theory, PsychoanalyticExplanation (Freud S.
1856-1939)believes that children develop strong emotional attachment to adults whosatisfy their needs, especially hunger. I agree with the former which suggestthat child develops an attachment with the person who understand and respond tohis / her signal. EthologicalExplanation by John Bowlby can be further supported by Harlow’s Theory ofAttachment by (Harlow H. 1958), didan experiment which concludes that food is not the most important things achild seeks from his / her mother / caregiver.
Rather, comfort of close bodilycontact and satisfaction of a child to cling on (Papalia,Martorell and Feldman, 2014) is more important. AStrange Situation study (Ainsworth M.1967) conducted to see behaviours of children who are securely andinsecurely attached. Babies who are securely attached sometimes cry or protestwhen a caregiver leaves but quickly obtain comfort they need once caregiverreturns. (Papalia, Martorell and Feldman,2014.
Avoidance attachment babies are unaffected by caregivers leaving orreturning (Papalia, Martorell andFeldman, 2014). Avoidance attached babies show little emotions, eithernegative or positive. (Papalia, Martorell and Feldman, 2014).
Anxious (resistant) attachment babies get really anxious even beforetheir caregivers leave. Upon the caregiver’s return, they tend to be upset fora long period of time. (Papalia, Martorell and Feldman, 2014).Disorganized Attachment (Main & Solomon, 1986) babies showsmisdirected behaviours such as the mother who heneeds for comfort is in fact the cause of his distress. Mother’s behavior mightfall into the extremes of physical or sexual abuse or it might reflect themother’s own fear and helplessness in the face of her infant’s demands.
Babies willdevelop good social emotional skills, if he / she feels secured and in turn willgrow up to have confidence, trust, sense of identity and good social skills. Thechild will be competent. Based on my observations, Sravanaesh has displayed excellentcharacteristic of social development.
He has shown amazing pro-social behaviorand self-awareness. He knows his abilities and when to ask for help (refer to Appendix pg 4-5, Incident 4). Thisshows that he understands himself and knows his limits in whatever he is doing.He is confident is whatever task he is doing (refer to Appendix pg 4, Incident 3) and makes sure he does itwell. He also displays good pro social behavior as he always volunteers to helphis teachers and peer without seeking rewards.
Sravanaesh also shows that he is competent in hissocial development as he seeks attention is socially acceptable ways, plan andcarry out complicated task and shows range of intellectual abilities. This goesto show that he has a warmth relationship with his parents and teachers (Thomas & Chess, 1977,1984) Hedisplays great consideration, empathy, secure attachment and being over allcompetent. He demonstrated the ability to lead (refer to Appendix pg 3-4, Incident 2) where asked his friends tomove away all the toys to get the chair from one place to another. He alsoshowed good problem-solving skills in getting a task done. Sravanaesh is overall very securely attached. 5. Cognitive Development Cognitivedevelopment is development on how children think, how they reason and how theyperceive the world.
CognitiveDevelopment Theory (Piaget J. 1969)has four stages to it. First, Sensori-Motor Stage (birth to two years old). Atthis stage, child relies on touching, feeling and using his senses to find outabout the world.
Learning still occurs even though it cannot be seen. Second,Pre-operational Stage (two to seven years old). At this stage, child stillrelies on using senses but is increasingly able to use language and words torepresent things that are not visible.
A child at this stage, only see thingsfrom his / her perspective and does not realize that his / her viewpoint isdifferent from others. Instead of logic, they rely on intuition and how thingslook to him / her. Third, Concrete OperationalStage (seven to twelve years old). Child at this stage is developing theconcept of numbers, relationship, processes. Able to think through problemsmentally though in terms of concrete objects rather than abstractions.Developing a greater ability to understand rules.
Fourth, FormalOperational Stage (twelve years and above), able to proceed a step further andcan now think in terms of concepts and abstractions. He / she is developing alevel of potential adult thought. Based on myobservation, Sravanaesh, a six-year-old boy is supposed to be at thepre-operational stage. However, his cognitive development is more in the ConcreteOperational Stage. (Piaget’s CognitiveDevelopment Theory – handout 10). He is at the stage where he understandsthat although the physical appearance has changed, the amount of coins stillremained the same (refer to Appendix pg 6,number / counting).
Same goes for the rest of the Conservation Task (refer to Appendix pg 7-9). This goes toshow that he has been exposed to play as play is an important component ofintelligence. Sravanaesh is able to view the world in a logical way rather thanintuitions and how things look for him.
The developmentof cognition is the process of gathering information and organizing it. It alsoinvolves using what has been gathered as the essence of the cognitiveexperience, allowing active involvement with people and things to allow knowingand understanding. Also seeking experiences that are interesting to themleading to problem solving. Another theorythat relates to cognitive development would be Social Cultural Theory (Vygotsky, 1978). He believes that throughplay, children stretch beyond their own understanding and develop new skillsand abilities that support further development and learning.
Social interactionis important in cognitive development. Adults have a bigger role to play suchas scaffolding by asking questions and supportive play which helps lesscompetent children develop with more skillful peers – within the zone proximaldevelopment (ZPD). He believes that when a student in ZPD for a particulartask, providing enough or appropriate assistance will give the child enough ‘boost’to achieve the task.
From myobservation of Sravanaesh (refer to Appendixpg 10 – 11) where Sravanaesh uses available objects around him to representand aid in his pretend play. He displayed good cognitive development when he isable to explain what each blocks and trays represent. This shows that he wasexposed to many play experiences where he can explore. As he is interested inarmy tanks, war and airplanes, he is able to imagine what all this vehicle cando and how they operate.
He is able to visualize what happens during war and playit with his friends during free play. 6. Conclusion In conclusion,development progress over time as a child gets older.
A child’s development canonly progress with exposure from parents and teachers. A child must experiencethings to learn and explore. They also learn best through play where they areable to express themselves better. Teacher and parents play apart in a child’slearning through scaffolding and ensuring they have a good environment todevelop and progress in. As per myobservation, Sravanaesh is well developed in all areas; physical, psychosocialand cognitive. He has displayed excellent physical skills, great intellectualskills especially in the conservation task at his age, he knows, understand andlook at things logically and lastly displayed amazing interactions with hispeer, shows empathy and acceptance of his friends and being able to care forother not only of his age but older and younger. He has good problem-solving skillsand shows good leadership.