1. of “Green Revolution” was not yet included in

1.     
Compare and
contrast  four (4) major theories that
highlighted the interrelationship of population, environment and natural
resources. (20)

 

Table 1.Four theories on Population, Environment and
Natural Resources

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Malthusian

Neo-Malthusian

Demographic
Transition

Political
Ecology

Population
trend

increasing

increasing

Depends
on what stage

Increasing

Food
production

Starvation  level

increase

No
specific data

Increase

Presence
of technology
(with/without)

without

with

with

With

Population
control programs (with/without)

 without

with

With
(stage 1- poor
            Stage 2 and 3- improving
            Stage 4&5- good
        

With

Effect
of migration on population

Not
mentioned

Not
mentioned

Not
mentioned

Mentioned

 

According to Malthus, the population will exceed
carrying capacity  and will  put a strain on the environment.  Food is the main factor governing the rate of
population growth. If  population
explosion will continue, this will lead to starvation. This is the pessimistic
idea of Malthus. However, he failed to consider technological innovation that
has the potential to increase food supply. The influence of “Green Revolution”
was not yet included in his theory. He did not discuss also the effect of
migration on population dynamics. When it comes to population control, he is in
favor of abstinence, late marriages, more of the moral constraint.

For the Neo- Malthusians, they believe that technology
can increase food production. The effect migration was not mentioned also. In
this theory, population controls through family planning is being advocated.  

Neo-Malthusian position is that the upper
class or elite  is threatened by the
increasing number of the commoners thus they 
advocate the  use of birth control
to avoid conflict that will arise associated with their properties (Shah,2017).
Neo- Malthusians believes in the  ideology of  individualism and capitalism private property.
 People in developed countries tend to be
more materialistic which is the reason why they want to have fewer children.

 

For the Demographic Transition Model,  stages of economic development is being
associated with  stages in population
growth. The transition from high birth rate and high death rate to low birth
rate and low death rate is being shown. High birth rate is associated with lack
of education and  not fully implemented
policies due to several issues like religious dogmas and other superstitions
that influence the type of family method selected by the family. Decrease in
population may be attributed to access to health care/medical technology. Women
have access to maternal care which increase the chance of the baby to be born
alive and be part of the population. In stage 1, there is poor program on family
planning. In stage 2 and 3,there is transition to improved health care while
for stage 4 and 5, family planning and health care services are already
established. However, this model does not show impact of migration to
population dynamics . Time frame for transition through stages of development
is not shown.

 

Image source: https://www.google.com.ph/search?dcr=0&biw=1242&bih=557&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=m44mWoijAsmn8QWu9bOwCw&q=demographic+transition+model&oq=demographic&gs_l=psy-ab.1.0.0i19k1l10.774627.778004.0.780397.12.10.0.2.2.0.880.1965.2-1j1j0j1j1.5.0….0…1c.1.64.psy-ab..5.6.1995.0…280.y9CsFV42WBQ#imgrc=ZB9rI7P0hdU4HM:

For
the political ecology model, it states that food production is influenced by
technology, ecology and population. As mentioned by Boserup as stated by Marquette
(1997), Human beings are capable of remarkable ingenuity in
the face of a problem . She also stated that we respond economically to
resource pressure through agricultural technology/innovations that increases
food supply. Political Ecology  model
discussed how migration affects population dynamics. People migrate due to population
pressure and unequal resource distribution. The dimension of culture, society
and nature were considered. Conservation strategies is linked to culture which include
human behavior. Land use change and climate change affect population dynamics.
These two  are being intensified  due to  anthropogenic
causes. Thus organization of people is very important. The practices of human
population /societal values are reflected in environmental policies. How the
public support policy interventions reflect the values of the society. Thus ,
the quality or air, water and land depend on the interaction between technology
(how people use it), ecology, population (socio-political dimension).

 

2. The
poverty statistics in the Philippines is skewed to rural areas.  Development has always been concentrated in
urban and industrial centers.  On the
other hand, environmental degradation in the developing countries like the
Philippines, particularly deforestation and coastal and marine degradation has
been associated with the poorest sector of society. Dispute or support this
proposition using an empirical case. 
(20)

 

            Poverty leading to
starvation is an effect of skewed income distribution.

 

 

 

 

3.A city is under
heavy development in the area of infrastructure, business and commercial
activities, increased in-migration.  Can
cities have sustainable future? Please elaborate. 20

 

UNEP 2011 defined green economy as  “one that
results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly
reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities. It is low carbon,
resource efficient, and socially inclusive.” I believe that  cities can achieve a sustainable future. My
answer will be based on the sectors of green economy and indicator of
sustainability.

 

1st
sector of green economy : Renewable Energy  (in the form of solar,wind, geothermal, etc).
If  there will be shift to this forms of
energy, Greenhouse gas emissions will be reduced and contribution to climate change
will also be reduced. This is under economic and ecological sustainability
indicatorsThe use of renewable energy can lead to environmental justice wherein
people can have access to clean and healthy environment due to reduction in
pollution. This is also aligned with SDG #3 (access to good health and well -being)
of the United Nations (2015).

 

2nd
sector of green economy : clean transportation . This encourages
the use of renewable energy also and biofuels .If people in the cities will
learn how to car pool or just walk or use a bike, there will be reduction in
the use of fossil fuels.

 

3rd
sector : construction of green buildings which uses renewable energy. Green spaces
can also be places on the roof top/deck so that plants can serve as carbon
sinks that will reduce global warming. Vertical gardens can also be
established.

 

4th  sector of green economy : water management (water
reclamation, use of rain water). In other countries,  grey and black water are being treated so
that it can be used again . Other countries also have a rain collector/big jar.
Through this water consumption is reduced.

 

6th
sector is waste management. Since there are more people in urban areas, more
wastes are generated. Information ,Education and Communication Campaign should
be done to reduce waste or convert it other forms like compost. Sustainable
packaging materials should also be considered, Bring Your Own Bag (BYOB) or eco
bags should be advocated. Basically, the family and the school system should
work together to educate young people on sustainable practices.

 

            Issues like environmental
destruction and  too much consumption due
to population growth has prompted to refocus policy       

            concern on food. Governance
capacity is important to change consumption patterns and address food waste and
promote sustaina      

            ble practices. (Gofray and Garnett , 2014). Actions to modify population growth and resource
intensive consumption patterns,   

             improve
systems of governance, and reduce waste are policy goals .

 

7th
sector: Land management . This is involves sustainable practices like organic
agriculture, urban forestry, afforestation, reforestation). Construction of
green spaces within the city is also necessary to reduce the “heat island
effect” and also to reduce climate change.

 

In relation to Sustainability indicators,
all the sectors contribute to economic sustainability. To benefit economically
means there is gain and majority of the population benefit. For ecological
indicators, if sectors 1-6 will apply sustainable practices, the ecological
integrity will be maintained. There is ecological function and regenerative capacity
of natural resources. People will access ecosystem system services and improve
quality of life. Another is technological viability, if all sectors will adopt
environmental friendly technology, economic gain will increase without leading
to too much environmental degradation. For political sustainability, people
should be empowered to participate in planning and decision making and
implementation of projects and policies. Another  is the socio-cultural viability wherein
beliefs, core values, worldview of a community which is consistent with human
ecological principles. The last indicator is institutional, if all the
government sectors will implement all the laws related to environmental
protection, sustainability can be achieved. Institutions like NGOs and academe
can also participate in developing a green economy.

Urbanization can lead to increase pollution.
There is also increase migration from rural to urban areas due to land tenure
policies. Some People in the rural area are landless which is the reason why
they migrate. Land use change occurs in 
fast rate to expand areas for production. According to the report (Climate
shock) of my classmate, Sir Mark Buncag, in Mexico, people migrate because they
don’t have time to adapt to climate change.  Availability of natural resources and
consumption is being influenced by population dynamics. Environmental
sustainability is determined by consumption levels and efficiency on how to use
available resources.

 

 

 

 

 

4. Under
what conditions can increasing  human
population have positive impacts on the environment? (20 pts)

 

   For others, increase in population is a
burden. However, increase in population 
can be seen as advantage by some because more people can contribute to
the work force/man power. If these people will have access to the
information/services, technology the life span will increase. If  people will have access to ” consumer
education” which is related to Sustainable Development Goal #12 on “Responsible
Consumption ” created by the United Nations in 2015, people will apply
sustainable practices that will reduce waste and GHG emissions. Thus environmental
justice ( access to clean and healthy environment ) will be  achieved (SDG# 3). Sustainable intensification
can be an opportunity to achieve food security.

 The analyses of Tilman (2011), agricultural
intensi?cation through technology adaptation and transfer and enhancement of
soil fertility in poorer nations would greatly reduce these yield gaps.
Sustainable agriculture provides a more equitable global food supply, and
greatly decrease the Greenhouse Gas 
(GHG) emissions. Destruction of habitat is reduced which can also reduce
species extinction brought about by land clearing. If environmental impacts
will be smaller, the evaluations of Tilman (2011) states that there will be a
100% increase from 2005 to 2050 in global crop production.  This is feasible if there are alternative
pathways of global agricultural development that will reap environmental
bene?ts.

 

Fig. Population
Growth and Its Positive Impact on the Environment (source: Sarmiento, B.G.2017)

 

The design and implementation and integration and cooperation
arrangements that will promote food, energy and water security and thereby, add
to the current efforts on governance structures at the municipal, provincial,
regional and global levels conducive to sustainable food security development.
The Local Government Units (LGUs) has a potential role in promoting food
security. Food security solutions require joint efforts in involving government
agencies and policy makers, the private sector and industry, civil society and
collaboration within the development community. The challenges of sustainable
development are great and the importance of 
food, energy and water security in achieving sustainable development
goals cannot be overstated. Significant changes in the national, regional and
global food security systems will be required to meet these challenges.

Sustainable
agriculture  that uses integrated based
approach can be an opportunity to achieve food security given that there is
balance interplay among the six (6) dimensions stated: ecological,
socio-cultural, institutional, political, technological, and economic. An
integrated natural resource management is essential for sustainable
livelihoods, disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation which can
expand production potential and lead to food security. The impacts of natural
disasters in the agricultural industry needs deeper and thorough planning and
management to reduce crop losses.

 

 

5.What could be the possible role of
science and technology in defining a positive relationship between population
and environment? (20 pts)

 

ROLE
OF  SCIENCE BASED EDUCATION

The demographic
transition model shows the transition of the population from high birth rate
and high death rate to low birth rate and low death rate. The characteristics
of developing countries are: low income, inequality, low level of productivity,
unstable government, limited technological capacity, underdeveloped industry,
poor health services and facilities, and  inadequate education. In the  case of the Philippines currently on stage2 ,
it is important to associate the state of our population to economic
development. What are the reasons that hinder in advancing to the next stage?
The Philippines’ population last year is 103.3 million and the number is still
increasing which puts a strain on the environment due to high demand for food .

 According to the demographic transition model,
countries in stage 2 have high birth rate and the deaths fall rapidly and there
is natural increase in population growth is. Increase in population may be
attributed to lack of education especially in rural communities. People there
have no access to the right information on family planning. Some of them still
rely on superstition. In some cultures, bearing a lot of children is
encouraged. Muslim men are allowed to have more than one wife which increases
the chance of having more child. Most women do not have knowledge and access to
family planning methods like contraceptives. In other cultures, the use of
reproductive health method is not acceptable. Thus, policy on reproductive
health in relation to culture should be considered also. This is one of the  reasons why the “Responsible parenthood and
reproductive health Act 0f 2012”  formerly RH bill is not yet fully implemented.
 Access to a safe, affordable, effective,
and acceptable family planning method should be known and accessed by the
public so that they will decide on what method to choose.

 Lack of education both in rural and urban
areas may also lead to unemployment. Since both men and women will just stay in
their house, there is more time for reproduction.  Due to no/low income, some people do not have
access to electricity as stated in the study of William K. Pan (2016)  in his study entitled “Land use as a mediating
factor of fertility in the Amazon” . According to him the  age,
education, electricity access, and household demographic characteristics has
a  relationship with childbirth. In
particular, education and electricity 
access were recently promoted as key policy variables to address
chronically high fertility rates in rural areas 
( as stated in the report of my classmate in Mr. Caramihan) . Another
thing, since the population in the Philippines is continually increasing, there
are more young people who have high reproductive potential. Thus, sex education
is essential to also control population. Topics like Sexually Transmitted
Disease should be covered. The Department of Education and Department of Health
should collaborate to achieve population control. Information, Education and
Communication Campaign should be intensified. However, I believe that sex
education should start in the home wherein the parents will have strong will to
discuss this matter to their children. Values inculcation is a must to avoid
early marriages. Nowadays, people marry because the girl is already pregnant
which I think should not be the case. Getting pregnant at an early age
(teenager) have potential health risks also.

ROLE OF MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY

The population in developing countries is also
increasing due to advancement in  medical
technology such as improved medicines, facilities and equipment which can
prolong the life span of people leading to an improved quality of life. Access
to maternal care is also available which can increase the chance of having a
healthy baby that will be a part of the population. Another factor is improved
source of water supply and access to proper sanitation which decreases the
chance of contracting diseases like cholera, typhoid ,dysentery. This diseases
can be fatal if not treated well.

Fertility is related to education and
economic development. Environmental policies should also consider both
demographic concerns and mediating factors. 
According to Pan (2016) policies can impact fertility choice, which can
help alleviate demand for land consumption and global population growth. . The
geography, magnitude, and timing of the demographic transition among the
world’s poorest rural populations will largely predict how many people will
live on the planet by 2100 and may also be a key predictor of how much forest
we will have remaining in 2100. 
Understanding predictors of fertility decline in such environments is
essential for our demographic and ecological futures.

ROLE OF AGRICULTURAL
TECHNOLOGY

Federoff et. al. (2017) stated that recent reports on food security
emphasize the gains that can be made by bringing existing food science
technology and  agronomic technology
and  “know how technology” to people who
do not yet have it.  This requires building
local educational, food processing capability, storage capacity, and other
aspects of agribusiness, and also technical, and research capacity,  as well as rural transportation and water and
communications infrastructure.

Due to 
increasing population, environmental degradation and the
of  use more non-renewable energy  that exacerbates climate change are
continually increasing. Policies providing quality education, training and
employment, and motivation for sustainable consumption are needed.

 

ROLE
OF SPACE TECHNOLOGY/GIS

 

For the agricultural sector
to remain knowledgeable, competitive and accurate, access to as much organized
information as possible is a necessity including the adoption of space
technologies as part of new generation of tools which help scientists and
decision makers obtain and handle the required information. Information about
availability and status of natural resources will no doubt increase
considerably with the availability of satellite imagery. Scientists and policy
makers should recognize the merits of space technologies for analyzing the wide
range of climatic and land use data for strategic planning and generating
tactical maps to reverse the trend of environmental degradation and declining
assets and achieve sustainable development. To be effective, strategies to increase
agricultural production must be supported by sound government policies and an
improved flow of information among farmers, scientists, and policy makers.

 

Enhance local capacity
building by means of tailor made short training courses for senior decision
makers and intermediate duration for technical experts/analysts to train them
how to integrate the use of space technologies. Close cooperation on research
and development, education and training will be the key to success in
developing global information networks and redressing current imbalances
between North and South in access to databases, ICT (Information and
Communication Technology) and decision support tools for managing Earth
resources and environment and ensuring sustainability. The success or failure
of space technology is mainly attributed to the organization’s inherent
receptivity and its ability to sustain development of these new innovations.

 

The capability of space
technologies to provide vital inputs towards achieving food and environmental
security, government should embarked upon a program to adopt to his technology
in the Local Government Unit (LGU) level. The application of space technologies
combined with bio-physical, socio-economic, and demographic and technological
inputs to rapidly initiate sustainable and integrated strategies across the
country for increasing agricultural productivity is no mote an option but has
become the most important imperative if we have to avoid large scale starvation
and poverty of people in the coming decades. Using space technologies and
modelling tools as a decision support system in agriculture and natural
resources and local governance is no longer a luxury for scientists and policy
makers but a necessity.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: MacKellar (1998)

The mediating factors that affects population are
Science and Technology, institutions and policy ,and cultural factors which
were explained already. There is an interaction among these factors.  Since population is increasing , we should
apply sustainable practices to meet the demand for food. The population
and  the quality of population (if they
are applying sustainable practices) will affect the quality of land, air, and
water. If we will protect the environment, these resources will still be
available to future generations.

The following SDG goals (Sustainable Development Goals developed by the
United Nations ; 2015)  are related to my
explanation above: SDG #1 – no poverty

 SDG#2 no hunger

 SDG#3- good health and well-being

SDG#4- quality education

SDG # 6 clean water and sanitation

SDG# 8 good jobs and economic growth

 

 

.