Compare andcontrast four (4) major theories thathighlighted the interrelationship of population, environment and naturalresources. (20) Table 1.Four theories on Population, Environment andNatural Resources Malthusian Neo-Malthusian Demographic Transition Political Ecology Population trend increasing increasing Depends on what stage Increasing Food production Starvation level increase No specific data Increase Presence of technology (with/without) without with with With Population control programs (with/without) without with With (stage 1- poor Stage 2 and 3- improving Stage 4&5- good With Effect of migration on population Not mentioned Not mentioned Not mentioned Mentioned According to Malthus, the population will exceedcarrying capacity and will put a strain on the environment. Food is the main factor governing the rate ofpopulation growth. If populationexplosion will continue, this will lead to starvation.
This is the pessimisticidea of Malthus. However, he failed to consider technological innovation thathas the potential to increase food supply. The influence of “Green Revolution”was not yet included in his theory. He did not discuss also the effect ofmigration on population dynamics.
When it comes to population control, he is infavor of abstinence, late marriages, more of the moral constraint. For the Neo- Malthusians, they believe that technologycan increase food production. The effect migration was not mentioned also. Inthis theory, population controls through family planning is being advocated. Neo-Malthusian position is that the upperclass or elite is threatened by theincreasing number of the commoners thus they advocate the use of birth controlto avoid conflict that will arise associated with their properties (Shah,2017).
Neo- Malthusians believes in the ideology of individualism and capitalism private property. People in developed countries tend to bemore materialistic which is the reason why they want to have fewer children. For the Demographic Transition Model, stages of economic development is beingassociated with stages in populationgrowth. The transition from high birth rate and high death rate to low birthrate and low death rate is being shown. High birth rate is associated with lackof education and not fully implementedpolicies due to several issues like religious dogmas and other superstitionsthat influence the type of family method selected by the family. Decrease inpopulation may be attributed to access to health care/medical technology.
Womenhave access to maternal care which increase the chance of the baby to be bornalive and be part of the population. In stage 1, there is poor program on familyplanning. In stage 2 and 3,there is transition to improved health care whilefor stage 4 and 5, family planning and health care services are alreadyestablished. However, this model does not show impact of migration topopulation dynamics .
Time frame for transition through stages of developmentis not shown. Image source: https://www.google.com.ph/search?dcr=0&biw=1242&bih=557&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=m44mWoijAsmn8QWu9bOwCw&q=demographic+transition+model&oq=demographic&gs_l=psy-ab.1.0.
y9CsFV42WBQ#imgrc=ZB9rI7P0hdU4HM:Forthe political ecology model, it states that food production is influenced bytechnology, ecology and population. As mentioned by Boserup as stated by Marquette(1997), Human beings are capable of remarkable ingenuity inthe face of a problem . She also stated that we respond economically toresource pressure through agricultural technology/innovations that increasesfood supply. Political Ecology modeldiscussed how migration affects population dynamics.
People migrate due to populationpressure and unequal resource distribution. The dimension of culture, societyand nature were considered. Conservation strategies is linked to culture which includehuman behavior. Land use change and climate change affect population dynamics.These two are being intensified due to anthropogeniccauses. Thus organization of people is very important. The practices of humanpopulation /societal values are reflected in environmental policies. How thepublic support policy interventions reflect the values of the society.
Thus ,the quality or air, water and land depend on the interaction between technology(how people use it), ecology, population (socio-political dimension). 2. Thepoverty statistics in the Philippines is skewed to rural areas. Development has always been concentrated inurban and industrial centers. On theother hand, environmental degradation in the developing countries like thePhilippines, particularly deforestation and coastal and marine degradation hasbeen associated with the poorest sector of society. Dispute or support thisproposition using an empirical case. (20) Poverty leading tostarvation is an effect of skewed income distribution. 3.
A city is underheavy development in the area of infrastructure, business and commercialactivities, increased in-migration. Cancities have sustainable future? Please elaborate. 20 UNEP 2011 defined green economy as “one thatresults in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantlyreducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities. It is low carbon,resource efficient, and socially inclusive.” I believe that cities can achieve a sustainable future. Myanswer will be based on the sectors of green economy and indicator ofsustainability. 1stsector of green economy : Renewable Energy (in the form of solar,wind, geothermal, etc).If there will be shift to this forms ofenergy, Greenhouse gas emissions will be reduced and contribution to climate changewill also be reduced.
This is under economic and ecological sustainabilityindicatorsThe use of renewable energy can lead to environmental justice whereinpeople can have access to clean and healthy environment due to reduction inpollution. This is also aligned with SDG #3 (access to good health and well -being)of the United Nations (2015). 2ndsector of green economy : clean transportation . This encouragesthe use of renewable energy also and biofuels .
If people in the cities willlearn how to car pool or just walk or use a bike, there will be reduction inthe use of fossil fuels. 3rdsector : construction of green buildings which uses renewable energy. Green spacescan also be places on the roof top/deck so that plants can serve as carbonsinks that will reduce global warming. Vertical gardens can also beestablished. 4th sector of green economy : water management (waterreclamation, use of rain water).
In other countries, grey and black water are being treated sothat it can be used again . Other countries also have a rain collector/big jar.Through this water consumption is reduced. 6thsector is waste management. Since there are more people in urban areas, morewastes are generated. Information ,Education and Communication Campaign shouldbe done to reduce waste or convert it other forms like compost. Sustainablepackaging materials should also be considered, Bring Your Own Bag (BYOB) or ecobags should be advocated.
Basically, the family and the school system shouldwork together to educate young people on sustainable practices. Issues like environmentaldestruction and too much consumption dueto population growth has prompted to refocus policy concern on food. Governancecapacity is important to change consumption patterns and address food waste andpromote sustaina ble practices. (Gofray and Garnett , 2014). Actions to modify population growth and resourceintensive consumption patterns, improvesystems of governance, and reduce waste are policy goals . 7thsector: Land management . This is involves sustainable practices like organicagriculture, urban forestry, afforestation, reforestation). Construction ofgreen spaces within the city is also necessary to reduce the “heat islandeffect” and also to reduce climate change.
In relation to Sustainability indicators,all the sectors contribute to economic sustainability. To benefit economicallymeans there is gain and majority of the population benefit. For ecologicalindicators, if sectors 1-6 will apply sustainable practices, the ecologicalintegrity will be maintained. There is ecological function and regenerative capacityof natural resources. People will access ecosystem system services and improvequality of life. Another is technological viability, if all sectors will adoptenvironmental friendly technology, economic gain will increase without leadingto too much environmental degradation. For political sustainability, peopleshould be empowered to participate in planning and decision making andimplementation of projects and policies.
Another is the socio-cultural viability whereinbeliefs, core values, worldview of a community which is consistent with humanecological principles. The last indicator is institutional, if all thegovernment sectors will implement all the laws related to environmentalprotection, sustainability can be achieved. Institutions like NGOs and academecan also participate in developing a green economy.Urbanization can lead to increase pollution.There is also increase migration from rural to urban areas due to land tenurepolicies. Some People in the rural area are landless which is the reason whythey migrate. Land use change occurs in fast rate to expand areas for production. According to the report (Climateshock) of my classmate, Sir Mark Buncag, in Mexico, people migrate because theydon’t have time to adapt to climate change.
Availability of natural resources andconsumption is being influenced by population dynamics. Environmentalsustainability is determined by consumption levels and efficiency on how to useavailable resources. 4. Underwhat conditions can increasing humanpopulation have positive impacts on the environment? (20 pts) For others, increase in population is aburden.
However, increase in population can be seen as advantage by some because more people can contribute tothe work force/man power. If these people will have access to theinformation/services, technology the life span will increase. If people will have access to ” consumereducation” which is related to Sustainable Development Goal #12 on “ResponsibleConsumption ” created by the United Nations in 2015, people will applysustainable practices that will reduce waste and GHG emissions. Thus environmentaljustice ( access to clean and healthy environment ) will be achieved (SDG# 3). Sustainable intensificationcan be an opportunity to achieve food security. The analyses of Tilman (2011), agriculturalintensi?cation through technology adaptation and transfer and enhancement ofsoil fertility in poorer nations would greatly reduce these yield gaps.Sustainable agriculture provides a more equitable global food supply, andgreatly decrease the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Destruction of habitat is reduced which can also reducespecies extinction brought about by land clearing.
If environmental impactswill be smaller, the evaluations of Tilman (2011) states that there will be a100% increase from 2005 to 2050 in global crop production. This is feasible if there are alternativepathways of global agricultural development that will reap environmentalbene?ts. Fig. PopulationGrowth and Its Positive Impact on the Environment (source: Sarmiento, B.G.2017) The design and implementation and integration and cooperationarrangements that will promote food, energy and water security and thereby, addto the current efforts on governance structures at the municipal, provincial,regional and global levels conducive to sustainable food security development.The Local Government Units (LGUs) has a potential role in promoting foodsecurity. Food security solutions require joint efforts in involving governmentagencies and policy makers, the private sector and industry, civil society andcollaboration within the development community.
The challenges of sustainabledevelopment are great and the importance of food, energy and water security in achieving sustainable developmentgoals cannot be overstated. Significant changes in the national, regional andglobal food security systems will be required to meet these challenges.Sustainableagriculture that uses integrated basedapproach can be an opportunity to achieve food security given that there isbalance interplay among the six (6) dimensions stated: ecological,socio-cultural, institutional, political, technological, and economic. Anintegrated natural resource management is essential for sustainablelivelihoods, disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation which canexpand production potential and lead to food security.
The impacts of naturaldisasters in the agricultural industry needs deeper and thorough planning andmanagement to reduce crop losses. 5.What could be the possible role ofscience and technology in defining a positive relationship between populationand environment? (20 pts) ROLEOF SCIENCE BASED EDUCATIONThe demographictransition model shows the transition of the population from high birth rateand high death rate to low birth rate and low death rate. The characteristicsof developing countries are: low income, inequality, low level of productivity,unstable government, limited technological capacity, underdeveloped industry,poor health services and facilities, and inadequate education.
In the case of the Philippines currently on stage2 ,it is important to associate the state of our population to economicdevelopment. What are the reasons that hinder in advancing to the next stage?The Philippines’ population last year is 103.3 million and the number is stillincreasing which puts a strain on the environment due to high demand for food .
According to the demographic transition model,countries in stage 2 have high birth rate and the deaths fall rapidly and thereis natural increase in population growth is. Increase in population may beattributed to lack of education especially in rural communities. People therehave no access to the right information on family planning. Some of them stillrely on superstition. In some cultures, bearing a lot of children isencouraged.
Muslim men are allowed to have more than one wife which increasesthe chance of having more child. Most women do not have knowledge and access tofamily planning methods like contraceptives. In other cultures, the use ofreproductive health method is not acceptable. Thus, policy on reproductivehealth in relation to culture should be considered also. This is one of the reasons why the “Responsible parenthood andreproductive health Act 0f 2012” formerly RH bill is not yet fully implemented. Access to a safe, affordable, effective,and acceptable family planning method should be known and accessed by thepublic so that they will decide on what method to choose.
Lack of education both in rural and urbanareas may also lead to unemployment. Since both men and women will just stay intheir house, there is more time for reproduction. Due to no/low income, some people do not haveaccess to electricity as stated in the study of William K.
Pan (2016) in his study entitled “Land use as a mediatingfactor of fertility in the Amazon” . According to him the age,education, electricity access, and household demographic characteristics hasa relationship with childbirth. Inparticular, education and electricity access were recently promoted as key policy variables to addresschronically high fertility rates in rural areas ( as stated in the report of my classmate in Mr. Caramihan) . Anotherthing, since the population in the Philippines is continually increasing, thereare more young people who have high reproductive potential.
Thus, sex educationis essential to also control population. Topics like Sexually TransmittedDisease should be covered. The Department of Education and Department of Healthshould collaborate to achieve population control.
Information, Education andCommunication Campaign should be intensified. However, I believe that sexeducation should start in the home wherein the parents will have strong will todiscuss this matter to their children. Values inculcation is a must to avoidearly marriages. Nowadays, people marry because the girl is already pregnantwhich I think should not be the case. Getting pregnant at an early age(teenager) have potential health risks also.
ROLE OF MEDICAL TECHNOLOGYThe population in developing countries is alsoincreasing due to advancement in medicaltechnology such as improved medicines, facilities and equipment which canprolong the life span of people leading to an improved quality of life. Accessto maternal care is also available which can increase the chance of having ahealthy baby that will be a part of the population. Another factor is improvedsource of water supply and access to proper sanitation which decreases thechance of contracting diseases like cholera, typhoid ,dysentery. This diseasescan be fatal if not treated well.Fertility is related to education andeconomic development.
Environmental policies should also consider bothdemographic concerns and mediating factors. According to Pan (2016) policies can impact fertility choice, which canhelp alleviate demand for land consumption and global population growth. . Thegeography, magnitude, and timing of the demographic transition among theworld’s poorest rural populations will largely predict how many people willlive on the planet by 2100 and may also be a key predictor of how much forestwe will have remaining in 2100.
Understanding predictors of fertility decline in such environments isessential for our demographic and ecological futures.ROLE OF AGRICULTURALTECHNOLOGYFederoff et. al. (2017) stated that recent reports on food securityemphasize the gains that can be made by bringing existing food sciencetechnology and agronomic technologyand “know how technology” to people whodo not yet have it. This requires buildinglocal educational, food processing capability, storage capacity, and otheraspects of agribusiness, and also technical, and research capacity, as well as rural transportation and water andcommunications infrastructure.Due to increasing population, environmental degradation and theof use more non-renewable energy that exacerbates climate change arecontinually increasing. Policies providing quality education, training andemployment, and motivation for sustainable consumption are needed.
ROLEOF SPACE TECHNOLOGY/GIS For the agricultural sectorto remain knowledgeable, competitive and accurate, access to as much organizedinformation as possible is a necessity including the adoption of spacetechnologies as part of new generation of tools which help scientists anddecision makers obtain and handle the required information. Information aboutavailability and status of natural resources will no doubt increaseconsiderably with the availability of satellite imagery. Scientists and policymakers should recognize the merits of space technologies for analyzing the widerange of climatic and land use data for strategic planning and generatingtactical maps to reverse the trend of environmental degradation and decliningassets and achieve sustainable development. To be effective, strategies to increaseagricultural production must be supported by sound government policies and animproved flow of information among farmers, scientists, and policy makers. Enhance local capacitybuilding by means of tailor made short training courses for senior decisionmakers and intermediate duration for technical experts/analysts to train themhow to integrate the use of space technologies. Close cooperation on researchand development, education and training will be the key to success indeveloping global information networks and redressing current imbalancesbetween North and South in access to databases, ICT (Information andCommunication Technology) and decision support tools for managing Earthresources and environment and ensuring sustainability. The success or failureof space technology is mainly attributed to the organization’s inherentreceptivity and its ability to sustain development of these new innovations. The capability of spacetechnologies to provide vital inputs towards achieving food and environmentalsecurity, government should embarked upon a program to adopt to his technologyin the Local Government Unit (LGU) level.
The application of space technologiescombined with bio-physical, socio-economic, and demographic and technologicalinputs to rapidly initiate sustainable and integrated strategies across thecountry for increasing agricultural productivity is no mote an option but hasbecome the most important imperative if we have to avoid large scale starvationand poverty of people in the coming decades. Using space technologies andmodelling tools as a decision support system in agriculture and naturalresources and local governance is no longer a luxury for scientists and policymakers but a necessity. Source: MacKellar (1998)The mediating factors that affects population areScience and Technology, institutions and policy ,and cultural factors whichwere explained already. There is an interaction among these factors. Since population is increasing , we shouldapply sustainable practices to meet the demand for food. The populationand the quality of population (if theyare applying sustainable practices) will affect the quality of land, air, andwater. If we will protect the environment, these resources will still beavailable to future generations.
The following SDG goals (Sustainable Development Goals developed by theUnited Nations ; 2015) are related to myexplanation above: SDG #1 – no poverty SDG#2 no hunger SDG#3- good health and well-beingSDG#4- quality educationSDG # 6 clean water and sanitationSDG# 8 good jobs and economic growth .