1. depends both from natural and human factors. The

of air quality in building’s internal space


The level of air quality in the building’s internal
space is one of the most important factors to be considered during the
construction and operation of the building. The quality of the internal air has
a major impact on the health and comfort of the building’s residents or
visitors. Low level of internal air quality can cause multiple respiratory
diseases, provoke headaches,
difficulty in concentration, dizziness and dermatological symptoms.

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The indoor air
quality is mainly influenced by the external factors but also the indoor
pollutants caused by the various activities performed inside the building.
During the construction of the building and its interior design it is very
important to choose non-toxic and environmental friendly materials such as painting
colors, shades, carpentry, ceiling etc.


It is very
crucial to install effective ventilation systems which will help in the
recycling of the inside air quality and create healthy indoor air quality by
preventing the accumulation of moist and other air pollutants. It is not always
enough to have natural passive ventilation systems and supplemental mechanical
ventilation systems are required which will control the injection of fresh air
into the building.


Based on the
study performed it was identified that in the BTWC there is low air leakage and
the windows can be opened allowing the natural ventilation of the building.


ventilation systems also exit in order to recycle the indoor air and air-
condition spaces were installed to reduce the accumulation of solar gain in the


2.     Level
of air quality in building’s external spaces


The level of air
quality in building’s external space depends both from natural and human
factors. The air quality of Middle East countries is strongly affected by dust
storms and high level of emissions of greenhouse gases. Dust and sand storms
transfer air pollutants for long distances and emissions of greenhouse gases cause
global warm awareness due to climate change but also vehicle emissions impact
the population’s health, welfare and the overall economy.


External air
quality has a direct effect to the quality of the internal air overall and in
the case where there is high air leakage the internal air quality will be
polluted from the external air.


Therefore, as
already mentioned the level of air quality in external spaces of BWTC is not
considered to be high due to the frequent dust and sand storms but also because
of high level of greenhouse gases emissions from frequent use of private cars.
The fact that BTWC has low air leakage helps to retain the level of internal
air quality at high levels.




In order to
improve the level of air quality in building’s external spaces it can be
considered to increase plantation around the building using plants that absorb
CO2 emissions and other substances like benzene and xylene.


BWTC hosts in it
building many offices and as a proposal to reduce the CO2 emissions of the
nearby area it should be heavily promoted to use the public transport by the
employees of the offices at low prices or even for free (subsidised by the
relevant office). In addition, there can be opportunities to work from home for
some days of the week and/or for some office employees. These measure will
reduce the traffic around the building and hence the air and noise pollution.


The above
proposed measures will help the visitors of the building to feel more
comfortable due to better outside conditions such as the quality of the air but
also the additional plants and less traffic will help to escape from the daily
anxieties. Employees of the building which will not be involved in the traffic
junctions by avoiding the use of private cars will be more relaxed and
therefore efficient during their work day offering better results to the
company. It is therefore obvious that by taking the proposed measures as
described above the benefits of such measures will be higher than the cost for


of measures implementation for biodiversity conservation and introduction


Biodiversity is the key factor that of the
environmental health component of the sustainable development. Biodiversity is
the factor that provides goods such as food, medicine and services such as
water purification and climate control. Biodiversity affects the countries’
agricultural sector and marine sector. People depend on the biodiversity of
forests products such as fruits from trees and bushes and the availability of


Biodiversity conservation and introduction involves
efforts to protect national parks and introduction of productive landscapes
where sustainability is required. Sustainable management of natural resources
is the main factor for conservation of landscapes for long-term social,
economic and ecological benefits.


Bahrain represents the home for many species and
ecosystems of high significance and uniqueness of the Bahrain’s natural
heritage. In 2007, the Kingdom of Bahrain introduced the first National
Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) which involves the cooperation
with United Nations Development Program (UNDP) recognizing the importance of
reversing the loss and conservation of biodiversity.


The Al-Areen Wildlife Park and Reserve is the main
terrestrial protected area of Bahrain managed on a day to day basis with the
main objective to promote public awareness and the biodiversity conservation in


The BWTC is
situated along the sea front providing their visitors a pleasant view of the onshore
breeze but also a walking pathway for pedestrians and cyclists just across the
main road. In addition, right in front the BWTC there is a small green area
with grass and palms offering the visitors a pleasant view and way to relax but
also shading on the grade car parks.

The building has
also extensive landscape areas and fountains which enhance the overall
atmosphere of the building.




It is proposed
to increase the green area available in the area of BWTC by adding additional
trees and plants of different colours and odours in order to further enhance
the biodiversity around the building. Additional benches and other spaces with
shading for resting can be added for people to get out of the building and have
a small break from their daily activities. This will help in the quality of the
people’s life and will enhance their concentration and low their stress during
the day.



of administrative measures implementation for underground water quality


The quality preservation
of underground water is one of the main and most valuable renewable resources.  Although the underground water is a renewable
resource it can not be recycled easily and quickly. Bahrain is a country with
extensive water shortage problems.


The climate of
Bahrain with high temperatures results to high level of evaporation which exceeds
the level of the rainfall. The rainfall in Bahrain is limited and typically
short in duration. Bahrain highly depends on the groundwater since it is the
only natural water resource. High temperatures which are further enhanced by
the greenhouse gases caused higher evaporation and hence reduce the amount of
water. Increased temperatures caused higher evaporation from soil requiring
more water resources for agriculture.




In order to
improve the sustainability and environmental performance of the project it is
very important to establish strict and clear measures with regards to the percentage
of administrative implementation for underground water quality preservation of
the building.


There should be written rules with regards to the
underground water preservation derived from the rain that comes into the ground
and then moved to the relevant water reservoirs. It is very important to
maintain the quality of the water since this water is the main source of
drinking water for Bahrain hence its contamination prevention is crucial.


The use of toxic chemicals in the BWTC and across the
area should be banned and only eco-friendly sprays, cleaning products and other
materials to be used in the building.


It is well known
that non-toxic and environmental friendly products are more expensive than
other toxic products however, due to the fact that the underground water is the
only source of drinking water the use of non-toxic and hence expensive products
will enable the water resources to be used with less cleaning procedures.
Therefore, the benefit of using non-toxic products is higher to the health but
also for the water cleaning process than the margin paid for the eco-friendly products.


Acid rain can
also cause contamination of ground water. By taking measures to reduce
environmental pollution will improve the quality of ground water. Arab
countries indirectly contribute to the increase of the greenhouse gases causing
the global climate change warnings by the significant use of vehicle
transportation. Vehicle transportation of Arab countries forms 90 percent of
total CO emissions.


The Carbon
monoxide, sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides all in combination with other
emissions and pollutants contribute to acid deposition on the land and water
causing pollution to vegetation, forests, rivers and the sea.


of administrative measures implementation for surface water quality


Micropollution is one of the main risk for the surface
water quality which resulted from the detection of various chemicals in the
surface water over a small water concentration amount. Micropollution is caused
mainly from industrial, agricultural and the daily usage of cleaning products,
pharmaceutical and personal care products. These factors have as a result a
negative effect to the aquatic ecosystems affecting not only the environment
but also the human health.


It is important through the construction and operation
of the building to use local recyclable and renewable material and products
(i.e sprays, cleaning products), which are environmentally friendly and
non-toxic. By using eco-friendly materials, the contamination of water will be
reduced. Installations of machines operating with oil should be avoided since
in case of a leakage this will cause immediate pollution of water by the oil
moving in underground soil and then moved to surface water.


of waste water management systems


There is no National Master Water Plan for sustainable
water management in Bahrain. The establishment of a proper monitoring and
management of water resources is essential. The effective use of waste water is
very important for the sustainability and especially in countries such as
Bahrain where shortage of water exists. It is important to separate potable and
non-potable waters and identify ways to reduce the potable water consumption by
exploiting the grey water.


The BWTC has incorporated a dual drainage system which
separate the foul and waste water and enables the recycling of gray water. In
addition, the BWTC toilets have a dual flush and electronic taps which do not
allow excess water flows.


Water management is also used in order to ensure the
cooling process of the building. Chilled water is distributed over the entire
complex through a connection cooling system which works on a sea water. This
mechanism of cooling has a very high-energy saving resulting to a low-carbon


In addition, a low-pressure system is installed for
the distribution of air and water requiring lower fan and pump power, hence
lower energy consumption.




In order to enhance the effectiveness of waste water
management system install waterless urinals in the toilets of the mall part of
the building where a big amount of people is using the toilets. The
installation cost of the waterless urinals will be recovered in a short-term
due to lower water usage which prevails the total cost of the urinals.



of surface and underground water quantity preservation



It is very
important to invest in expensive desalination and sewerage systems and having a
good planning for management of water resource. There should be active
involvement not only by the state through relevant law impositions and reforms
but also by the public and constant information and training to achieve
effective water management.



Human education
and information is the major factor which will help to preserve the percentage
of surface and underground water quantity. No installations or mechanisms will
enable the preservation of water if the people will not help in this mission.