1. Freud had a belief based on the beginning of the dream having a hidden meaning or the concealed content of a dream in which it is camouflaged by the manifest content of a dream. He also believed that a conscious mind would protect a person by presenting the hidden motivations in a disguised form. On the other hand, the activation-synthesis theory explains how dreams are produced when the brain is trying to comprehend the random neural activity going on during sleep. When someone is fully conscious, neural activity is associated with our environmental stimuli to make sense of the world. While we’re sleeping, we don’t receive much from the outside world, but neural activity continues and therefore this activity is free to make various interpretations. In contrast to Freud’s belief of dreams have concealed messages, activation-synthesis displays that dreams randomly occur then the mind adds various meanings while it interprets the firing of neurons that are associated with REM sleep.
2. First, depressants have a calming and sedative effect and change the someone’s consciousness by inducing sleep. Depressants lower the central nervous system activity. Another are stimulants and stimulants increase the activity of the central nervous system and therefore enhances alertness and arousal. Hallucinogens have the possibility of causing hallucinations and delusions. Narcotics is a pain reliever and has the possibility of causing lethargy and stupor. Narcotics cause relaxation and due to this, it can cause sleepiness. Lastly, marijuana is considered to work like a mild hallucinogen and have euphoric effects while possibly affecting someone’s memory and judgment.
3. Hypnosis is defined as a “social interaction in which one person makes suggestions that lead to a change in another person’s subjective experience of the world” (Schacter et al 208). Moreover, a person can feel that his/her behavior is being led by suggestions from the hypnotist rather than being controlled consciously when being under hypnosis. Hypnotic susceptibility has a lot of individual variabilities and there aren’t tests that can accurately predict the degree at which someone can be hypnotized. However, the best predictor is for someone who believes that they can be hypnotized. People who are easily able to become hypnotized are the ones who have an active imagination and is able to absorb themselves in books and/or movies. Unproven/disproven effects upon hypnosis involve excessive claims of physical feats and reminiscence of memories. Analgesia is a state in which someone feels less pain and hypnosis is what produces this state.
4. This issue relates to the fundamental difficulty we have in seeing others consciousness. In illustrating this issue, think about when someone behaves the same way you do; the person may talk about their experiences, react to stimuli, and possibly flinch in pain when stung by a wasp. However, the person is unconscious and doesn’t have inner experience. We question whether someone is conscious or not and since we have access to our own consciousness, we can make definite statements in regard to that. On the other hand, we do not have access to other people’s consciousness because it’s quite impossible to know if someone is conscious or not. People do make assumptions and conclusions that other people have the same experience of consciousness to themselves and we cannot honestly know.
5. (Grade this question) The four basic properties of consciousness are intentionality, unity, selectivity, and transience and these can relate to someone’s study habits. First, intentionality deals with consciousness being directed at an object. Someone who is not doing well in a psychology class may need to direct their consciousness at psychology more frequently. However, our conscious attention is limited and doesn’t last long. Therefore, this can definitely affect how long someone is focused on assignments without any distractions. Second is unity and this suggests that if someone were to multitask and do different things at once, their performance will decrease. A good idea would be to study for an exam instead of watching television, going through social media, etc. The third is selectivity and what usually happens is that someone’s mind is filtering out sensory information that is associated with the temperature of the environment someone is in, the chair being hard, and even hearing your roommate doing something at the time of studying. What can help is to tune in information that relates to its intention, in this case, psychology. However, this does have limitations such as possibly hearing your name outside your room and then your attention is drawn to that. The best for when it’s time to study for a psychology exam is to go somewhere where it is quiet and where there are no distractions. Lastly is transience and this relates to someone’s conscious attention changing its focus constantly. This can occur due to the possibility of having a limit of working memory and therefore will make someone’s mind wander off after an extended amount of time studying for an exam. The best advice would be to take plenty of small breaks during study time.